Neuromelanin of the Human Substantia Nigra: An Update View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2013-10-24

AUTHORS

Fabio A. Zucca, Emy Basso, Francesca A. Cupaioli, Emanuele Ferrari, David Sulzer, Luigi Casella, Luigi Zecca

ABSTRACT

Dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra selectively degenerate over the course of Parkinson’s disease. These neurons are also the most heavily pigmented cells of the brain, accumulating the dark pigment neuromelanin over a lifetime. The massive presence of neuromelanin in these brain areas has long been suspected as a key factor involved in the selective vulnerability of neurons. The high concentration of neuromelanin in substantia nigra neurons seems to be linked to the presence of considerable amounts of cytosolic dopamine that have not been sequestered into synaptic vesicles. Over the past few years, studies have uncovered a dual nature of neuromelanin. Intraneuronal neuromelanin can be a protective factor, shielding the cells from toxic effects of redox active metals, toxins, and excess of cytosolic catecholamines. In contrast, neuromelanin released by dying neurons can contribute to the activation of neuroglia triggering the neuroinflammation that characterizes Parkinson’s disease. This article reviews recent studies on the molecular aspects of neuromelanin of the human substantia nigra. More... »

PAGES

13-23

References to SciGraph publications

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  • 2009-12-03. Neuromelanin Activates Microglia and Induces Degeneration of Dopaminergic Neurons: Implications for Progression of Parkinson’s Disease in NEUROTOXICITY RESEARCH
  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s12640-013-9435-y

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    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12640-013-9435-y

    DIMENSIONS

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    PUBMED

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24155156


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    31 schema:description Dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra selectively degenerate over the course of Parkinson’s disease. These neurons are also the most heavily pigmented cells of the brain, accumulating the dark pigment neuromelanin over a lifetime. The massive presence of neuromelanin in these brain areas has long been suspected as a key factor involved in the selective vulnerability of neurons. The high concentration of neuromelanin in substantia nigra neurons seems to be linked to the presence of considerable amounts of cytosolic dopamine that have not been sequestered into synaptic vesicles. Over the past few years, studies have uncovered a dual nature of neuromelanin. Intraneuronal neuromelanin can be a protective factor, shielding the cells from toxic effects of redox active metals, toxins, and excess of cytosolic catecholamines. In contrast, neuromelanin released by dying neurons can contribute to the activation of neuroglia triggering the neuroinflammation that characterizes Parkinson’s disease. This article reviews recent studies on the molecular aspects of neuromelanin of the human substantia nigra.
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