Detection of Hepatitis A Virus and Norovirus in Different Food Categories: A 6-Year Survey in Italy View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

2021-10-26

AUTHORS

Enrico Pavoni, Barbara Bertasi, Elisa Galuppini, Lucia Mangeri, Francesca Meletti, Michela Tilola, Valentina Carta, Silvia Todeschi, Marina-Nadia Losio

ABSTRACT

To observe the prevalence of contamination by hepatitis A virus (HAV) and norovirus (NoV) in different food types, 9242 samples were analyzed over a 6-year period (January 2014–December 2019). Samples were from routine official activities by Competent Authorities (CAs) and Food Business Operators, according to Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points plans. Analyses were performed in accordance with European and Italian regulations. Food types were obtained from different production areas of Italy, and ranged from mollusks, ready-to-eat (RTE) and packaged vegetables, frozen berries, tap water, fruit and RTE fruit salads, and processed and preserved foods. No risk management plans were set by the authors’ laboratory, because they were still adopted by conferring customers. Analyses were conducted according to ISO/TS 15216-2:2013 (ISO in Part 2: Method for Qualitative Detection. International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, 2013). The data showed that 2.25% (95% CI: 2.0–2.6) of samples were contaminated by at least one virus type, and that the most detected pathogen was NoV GII (89.50% of all positives). Mollusks (filter-feeding animals) were the most contaminated category (92.31% of all positives) not only by NoV or HAV individually, but also by multiple HAV/NoV contaminations consisting of 22.59% of all positives. For NoV, there was a significant correlation between shellfish positivity and season, with the autumn–winter period being the most associated with risk. Conversely, berries, drinking water and RTE vegetables, previously linked to several outbreaks, showed a low rate of contamination. These results from data collection have implications for the improvement of sampling plans for HAV and NoV by Italian CAs, and by food-producing and distribution operators. Moreover, these findings obtained by a standardized qualitative method contribute the collection of data aimed at establishing new microbiological criteria not yet foreseen (but advocated) by current European rules. More... »

PAGES

69-76

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s12560-021-09503-y

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12560-021-09503-y

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1142178940

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/34698989


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