Environmental Surveillance for Noroviruses in Selected South African Wastewaters 2015–2016: Emergence of the Novel GII.17 View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

2017-08-04

AUTHORS

V. V. Mabasa, K. D. Meno, M. B. Taylor, Janet Mans

ABSTRACT

Norovirus (NoV) GII.4 is the predominant genotype associated with gastroenteritis pandemics and new strains emerge every 2–3 years. Between 2008 and 2011, environmental studies in South Africa (SA) reported NoVs in 63% of the sewage-polluted river water samples. The aim of this study was to assess whether wastewater samples could be used for routine surveillance of NoVs, including GII.4 variants. From April 2015 to March 2016, raw sewage and effluent water samples were collected monthly from five wastewater treatment plants in SA. A total of 108 samples were screened for NoV GI and GII using real-time RT-qPCR. Overall 72.2% (78/108) of samples tested positive for NoVs with 4.6% (5/108) GI, 31.5% (34/108) GII and 36.1% (39/108) GI + GII strains being detected. Norovirus concentrations ranged from 1.02 × 102 to 3.41 × 106 genome copies/litre for GI and 5.00 × 103 to 1.31 × 106 genome copies/litre for GII. Sixteen NoV genotypes (GI.2, GI.3, GI.4, GI.5, GI.6, GII.2, GII.3, GII.4, GII.7, GII.9, GII.10, GII.14, GII.16, GII.17, GII.20, and GII.21) were identified. Norovirus GII.2 and GII.17 co-dominated and the majority of GII.17 strains clustered with the novel Kawasaki 2014 variant. Sewage surveillance facilitated detection of Kawasaki 2014 in SA, which to date has not been detected with surveillance in children with gastroenteritis <5 years of age. Combined surveillance in the clinical setting and environment appears to be a valuable strategy to monitor emergence of NoV strains in countries that lack NoV outbreak surveillance. More... »

PAGES

16-28

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s12560-017-9316-2

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12560-017-9316-2

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1091048051

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28779481


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