Sustainability of a Tidal Freshwater Marsh Exposed to a Long-term Hydrologic Barrier and Sea Level Rise View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2013-05

AUTHORS

P. Delgado, P. F. Hensel, C. W. Swarth, M. Ceroni, R. Boumans

ABSTRACT

A 115-year-old railroad levee bisecting a tidal freshwater marsh perpendicular to the Patuxent River (Maryland) channel has created a northern, upstream marsh and a southern, downstream marsh. The main purpose of this study was to determine how this levee may affect the ability of the marsh system to gain elevation and to determine the levee’s impact on the marsh’s long-term sustainability to local relative sea level rise (RSLR). Previously unpublished data from 1989 to 1992 showed that suspended solids and short-term sediment deposition were greater in the south marsh compared to the north marsh; wetland surface elevation change data (1999 to 2009) showed significantly higher elevation gain in the south marsh compared to the north (6 ± 2 vs. 0 ± 2 mm year−1, respectively). However, marsh surface accretion (2007 to 2009) showed no significant differences between north and south marshes (23 ± 8 and 26 ± 7 mm year−1, respectively), and showed that shallow subsidence was an important process in both marshes. A strong seasonal effect was evident for both accretion and elevation change, with significant gains during the growing season and elevation loss during the non-growing season. Sediment transport, deposition and accretion decreased along the intertidal gradient, although no clear patterns in elevation change were recorded. Given the range in local RSLR rates in the Chesapeake Bay (2.9 to 5.8 mm year−1), only the south marsh is keeping pace with sea level at the present time. Although one would expect the north marsh to benefit from high accretion of abundant riverine sediments, these results suggest that long-term elevation gain is a more nuanced process involving more than riverine sediments. Overall, other factors such as infrequent episodic coastal events may be important in allowing the south marsh to keep pace with sea level rise. Finally, caution should be exercised when using data sets spanning only a couple of years to estimate wetland sustainability as they may not be representative of long-term cumulative effects. Two years of data do not seem to be enough to establish long-term elevation change rates at Jug Bay, but instead a decadal time frame is more appropriate. More... »

PAGES

585-594

References to SciGraph publications

  • 1998-09. Sedimentation cycles in a river-mouth tidal freshwater marsh in CHESAPEAKE SCIENCE
  • 2008-06. Improved estimates of upper-ocean warming and multi-decadal sea-level rise in NATURE
  • 2002. The Role of Pulsing Events in the Functioning of Coastal Barriers and Wetlands: Implications for Human Impact, Management and the Response to Sea Level Rise in CONCEPTS AND CONTROVERSIES IN TIDAL MARSH ECOLOGY
  • 1992-06. The paleoecological development of a late holocene, tidal freshwater marsh of the Upper Delaware River estuary in CHESAPEAKE SCIENCE
  • 1993-06. High precision measurements of sediment elevation in shallow coastal areas using a sedimentation-erosion table in CHESAPEAKE SCIENCE
  • 1997-06. Controls of sediment transport and deposition in an incised mainland marsh basin, southeastern North Carolina in WETLANDS
  • 2011-01. Global sea-level rise and its relation to the terrestrial reference frame in JOURNAL OF GEODESY
  • 1995-12. Impacts of sea-level rise on deltas in the Gulf of Mexico and the Mediterranean: The importance of pulsing events to sustainability in CHESAPEAKE SCIENCE
  • 1989-12. Accretion rates and sediment accumulation in Rhode Island salt marshes in CHESAPEAKE SCIENCE
  • 1994-06. Nutrient and metal accumulation in a freshwater tidal marsh in CHESAPEAKE SCIENCE
  • 1989-12. Understanding salt-marsh accretion, Scolt Head Island, Norfolk, England in CHESAPEAKE SCIENCE
  • 2006-12. A review of major storm impacts on coastal wetland elevations in CHESAPEAKE SCIENCE
  • 1989-12. Patterns of sediment deposition in subsiding coastal salt marshes, Terrebonne Bay, Louisiana: The role of winter storms in CHESAPEAKE SCIENCE
  • 2001-12. Hydrologic change and vegetation of tidal freshwater marshes: Field, greenhouse, and seed-bank experiments in WETLANDS
  • 1998-03. Short-term sedimentation dynamics in the Rhône River Delta. France: The importance of riverine pulsing in CHESAPEAKE SCIENCE
  • 1989-12. Accretion and canal impacts in a rapidly subsiding wetland II. Feldspar marker horizon technique in CHESAPEAKE SCIENCE
  • 2012-12. Hotspot of accelerated sea-level rise on the Atlantic coast of North America in NATURE CLIMATE CHANGE
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    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s12237-013-9587-2

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