Lateral Opening-wedge Distal Femoral Osteotomy: Pain Relief, Functional Improvement, and Survivorship at 5 Years View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2015-06

AUTHORS

James I. Cameron, Julie C. McCauley, Arash Y. Kermanshahi, William D. Bugbee

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Distal femoral varus osteotomy may be used to treat valgus knee malalignment or to protect a knee compartment in which cartilage restoration surgery (such as osteochondral or meniscus allografting) has been performed. Medial closing-wedge osteotomy has demonstrated good success in treatment of osteoarthritis in published series, but few studies have evaluated distal femoral lateral opening-wedge osteotomy in terms of correction of deformity, pain and function, and survivorship. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) Does lateral opening-wedge osteotomy lead to accurate correction? (2) What pain and function levels do patients experience after lateral opening-wedge osteotomy? (3) What are the nonunion, complication, and reoperation rates after lateral opening-wedge osteotomy? METHODS: Between 2000 and 2010, we performed 40 distal femoral osteotomies. Two knees (two patients) underwent a medial closing-wedge osteotomy and were excluded from the present study. Thirty-eight knees (97%) in 36 patients were lateral opening-wedge varus-producing osteotomies; of those, 31 knees (82%) in 30 patients had followup at a minimum of 2 years (mean, 5 years; SD, 2; range, 2-12 years) and comprised the study population. The indications for osteotomy included symptomatic lateral compartment arthritis with clinical valgus deformity or a cartilage or meniscal defect in the lateral compartment with clinical valgus alignment. The study population was stratified into two groups based on reason for osteotomy: patients with isolated symptomatic lateral compartment arthritis (arthritis group; 19 knees [61%]) and patients who underwent joint preservation procedures including osteochondral allograft transplantation or meniscal allograft transplantation (joint preservation group; 12 knees [39%]). Data collection from our institution's osteotomy database included patient demographics, lower extremity coronal alignment, and operative details. Pain and function were measured preoperatively and postoperatively using the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score. Time to radiographic union, complications, and reoperations were recorded. RESULTS: Twenty-one of 31 knees had postoperative radiographic data available for review. Of these, seven of 15 knees in the arthritis group and three of six knees in the joint preservation group were within the correction goal of ± 3° from neutral mechanical alignment. In the arthritis group, the mean IKDC total score improved from 47 (SD, 15) preoperatively to 67 (SD, 10) postoperatively. In the joint preservation group, the mean IKDC total score improved from 36 (SD, 12) preoperatively to 62 (SD, 18) postoperatively. One nonunion occurred in the arthritis group. No postoperative complications were experienced. Ten knees in the arthritis group and six knees in the joint preservation group had additional surgery after the osteotomy, consisting primarily of hardware removal, arthroscopy for cartilage-related conditions, or conversion to arthroplasty. Survivorship at 5 years, with conversion to arthroplasty as the endpoint, was 74% in the arthritis group and 92% in the joint preservation group. CONCLUSIONS: Lateral opening-wedge distal femoral osteotomy was less accurate in correction of valgus deformity than expected, but the procedure was associated with improved knee pain and function scores. Our clinical and radiographic results are comparable to published series evaluating medial closing-wedge distal femoral osteotomy. Achieving our desired correction of ± 3° from neutral alignment was clinically difficult. An improved method of preoperative templating and refinement of the intraoperative technique may improve this. Future studies with more patients and longer followup will provide clarity on this topic. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, therapeutic study. More... »

PAGES

2009-2015

References to SciGraph publications

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s11999-014-4106-8

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11999-014-4106-8

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017201300

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25537806


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48 schema:description BACKGROUND: Distal femoral varus osteotomy may be used to treat valgus knee malalignment or to protect a knee compartment in which cartilage restoration surgery (such as osteochondral or meniscus allografting) has been performed. Medial closing-wedge osteotomy has demonstrated good success in treatment of osteoarthritis in published series, but few studies have evaluated distal femoral lateral opening-wedge osteotomy in terms of correction of deformity, pain and function, and survivorship. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) Does lateral opening-wedge osteotomy lead to accurate correction? (2) What pain and function levels do patients experience after lateral opening-wedge osteotomy? (3) What are the nonunion, complication, and reoperation rates after lateral opening-wedge osteotomy? METHODS: Between 2000 and 2010, we performed 40 distal femoral osteotomies. Two knees (two patients) underwent a medial closing-wedge osteotomy and were excluded from the present study. Thirty-eight knees (97%) in 36 patients were lateral opening-wedge varus-producing osteotomies; of those, 31 knees (82%) in 30 patients had followup at a minimum of 2 years (mean, 5 years; SD, 2; range, 2-12 years) and comprised the study population. The indications for osteotomy included symptomatic lateral compartment arthritis with clinical valgus deformity or a cartilage or meniscal defect in the lateral compartment with clinical valgus alignment. The study population was stratified into two groups based on reason for osteotomy: patients with isolated symptomatic lateral compartment arthritis (arthritis group; 19 knees [61%]) and patients who underwent joint preservation procedures including osteochondral allograft transplantation or meniscal allograft transplantation (joint preservation group; 12 knees [39%]). Data collection from our institution's osteotomy database included patient demographics, lower extremity coronal alignment, and operative details. Pain and function were measured preoperatively and postoperatively using the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score. Time to radiographic union, complications, and reoperations were recorded. RESULTS: Twenty-one of 31 knees had postoperative radiographic data available for review. Of these, seven of 15 knees in the arthritis group and three of six knees in the joint preservation group were within the correction goal of ± 3° from neutral mechanical alignment. In the arthritis group, the mean IKDC total score improved from 47 (SD, 15) preoperatively to 67 (SD, 10) postoperatively. In the joint preservation group, the mean IKDC total score improved from 36 (SD, 12) preoperatively to 62 (SD, 18) postoperatively. One nonunion occurred in the arthritis group. No postoperative complications were experienced. Ten knees in the arthritis group and six knees in the joint preservation group had additional surgery after the osteotomy, consisting primarily of hardware removal, arthroscopy for cartilage-related conditions, or conversion to arthroplasty. Survivorship at 5 years, with conversion to arthroplasty as the endpoint, was 74% in the arthritis group and 92% in the joint preservation group. CONCLUSIONS: Lateral opening-wedge distal femoral osteotomy was less accurate in correction of valgus deformity than expected, but the procedure was associated with improved knee pain and function scores. Our clinical and radiographic results are comparable to published series evaluating medial closing-wedge distal femoral osteotomy. Achieving our desired correction of ± 3° from neutral alignment was clinically difficult. An improved method of preoperative templating and refinement of the intraoperative technique may improve this. Future studies with more patients and longer followup will provide clarity on this topic. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, therapeutic study.
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