Treatment of Relapsed Acute Myeloid Leukemia View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2020-06-29

AUTHORS

Felicitas Thol, Arnold Ganser

ABSTRACT

Opinion statementRelapse is still a common scenario in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) treatment and occurs in 40–50% of younger and the great majority of elderly patients. The prognosis in relapsed AML patients is generally poor but depends largely on the timing of relapse (early versus late) and the possibility of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). At the time of relapse, we again perform a mutational screening and cytogenetic analysis in all AML patients as clonal evolution of disease is frequent. Clinical trials should be first priority in all relapsed patients. In fit patients without prior transplant, we aim to perform HSCT after salvage therapy. In AML patients relapsing after HSCT and good performance status, intensive therapy can be considered with subsequent cellular therapy such as donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) or a second HSCT. However, less than 20% of these patients are alive after 5 years. For those patients that are unfit, the therapeutic aim is to prolong life with acceptable quality of life. Here, hypomethylating agents (HMA), low-dose AraC (LDAC), and solely cytoreductive therapy with hydroxurea are options depending on first-line therapy. For those patients that have not been treated with venetoclax in first line, the combination therapy of venetoclax with demethylating agents achieves encouraging response rates. Venetoclax is currently also studied in combination with intensive salvage therapy. Importantly, for patients with isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1/2–mutated AML, ivosidenib, an IDH1 inhibitor, and enasidenib, an IDH2 inhibitor, present well-tolerated options in the setting of refractory or relapsed (r/r) disease even in elderly and heavily pre-treated patients with response rates of 30–40%. Both substances have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for r/r AML patients with IDH1/2 mutations (but not yet by the European Medicines Agency (EMA)). For patients with FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) mutations, treatment with the selective FLT3 inhibitor gilteritinib is well tolerated and leads to improved outcome compared with standard salvage therapy. The approval has been granted by the FDA and the EMA. Generally, we would recommend targeted therapy for IDH1/2- and FLT3-mutated AML if available. In order to improve outcome in relapsed AML, it will be important to intelligently combine novel substances with each other as well as chemotherapy in prospective clinical trials. The development of therapies with bispecific antibodies or chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CAR-T) are still in early development. More... »

PAGES

66

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s11864-020-00765-5

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11864-020-00765-5

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1128839915

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32601974


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