Characterization of crystalline cellulose in biomass: Basic principles, applications, and limitations of XRD, NMR, IR, Raman, and SFG View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2013-10-21

AUTHORS

Seong H. Kim, Christopher M. Lee, Kabindra Kafle

ABSTRACT

Cellulose is among the most important and abundant biopolymers in biosphere. It is the main structural component of a vast number of plants that carries vital functions for plant growth. Cellulose-based materials have been used in a variety of human activities ranging from papers and fabrics to engineering applications including production of biofuels. However, our understanding of the cellulose structure in its native form is quite limited because the current experimental methods often require separation or purification processes and provide only partial information of the cellulose structure. This paper aims at providing a brief background of the cellulose structure and reviewing the basic principles, capabilities and limitations of the cellulose characterization methods that are widely used by engineers dealing with biomass. The analytical techniques covered in this paper include x-ray diffraction, nuclear magnetic resonance, and vibrational spectroscopy (infrared, Raman, and sum-frequency-generation). The scope of the paper is restricted to the application of these techniques to the structural analysis of cellulose. More... »

PAGES

2127-2141

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    60 cellulose
    61 cellulose structure
    62 cellulose-based materials
    63 characterization
    64 characterization methods
    65 components
    66 crystalline cellulose
    67 current experimental methods
    68 diffraction
    69 engineering applications
    70 engineers
    71 experimental methods
    72 fabric
    73 form
    74 function
    75 growth
    76 human activities
    77 information
    78 limitations
    79 magnetic resonance
    80 main structural components
    81 materials
    82 method
    83 native form
    84 nuclear magnetic resonance
    85 number
    86 paper
    87 partial information
    88 plant growth
    89 plants
    90 principles
    91 process
    92 production
    93 production of biofuels
    94 purification process
    95 resonance
    96 scope
    97 separation
    98 spectroscopy
    99 structural analysis
    100 structural components
    101 structure
    102 technique
    103 understanding
    104 variety
    105 vast number
    106 vibrational spectroscopy
    107 vital functions
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