Repeated mild traumatic brain injuries is not associated with volumetric differences in former high school football players View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

2017-04-22

AUTHORS

Douglas P. Terry, L. Stephen Miller

ABSTRACT

We investigated potential brain volumetric differences in a sample of former high school football players many years after these injuries. Forty community-dwelling males ages 40–65 who played high school football, but not college or professional sports, were recruited. The experimental group (n = 20) endorsed experiencing two or more mTBIs on an empirically validated mTBI assessment tool (median = 3, range = 2–15). The control group (n = 20) denied ever experiencing an mTBI. Participants completed a self-report index of current mTBI symptomatology and underwent high-resolution T1-weighted MRI scanning, which were analyzed using the Freesurfer software package. A priori regions of interest (ROIs) included total intracranial volume (ICV), total gray matter, total white matter, bilateral anterior cingulate cortex, bilateral hippocampi, and lateral ventricles. ROIs were corrected for head size using a normalization method that took ICV into account. Despite an adequate sample size and being matched on age, education, estimated premorbid IQ, current concussive symptomatology, there were no statistically significant volumetric group differences across all of the ROIs. These data suggest that multiple mTBIs from high school football may not be associated with measurable brain atrophy later in life. Accounting for the severity of injury and chronicity of sport exposure may be especially important when measuring long-term neuroanatomical differences. More... »

PAGES

631-639

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s11682-017-9719-6

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11682-017-9719-6

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1085042200

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28434160


Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

[
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "about": [
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/11", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Medical and Health Sciences", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/1103", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Clinical Sciences", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Adult", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Aged", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Athletes", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Athletic Injuries", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Brain", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Brain Concussion", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Football", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Humans", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Magnetic Resonance Imaging", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Male", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Middle Aged", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Organ Size", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Recurrence", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }
    ], 
    "author": [
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.32224.35", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Spaulding Rehabilitation Network, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA", 
            "Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Terry", 
        "givenName": "Douglas P.", 
        "id": "sg:person.01105417306.55", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01105417306.55"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "BioImaging Research Center, Biomedical & Health Science Institute, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.213876.9", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Psychology, University of Georgia, 110 Hooper St, Psychology Building, Room 163, 30602, Athens, GA, USA", 
            "BioImaging Research Center, Biomedical & Health Science Institute, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Miller", 
        "givenName": "L. Stephen", 
        "id": "sg:person.0720263027.55", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0720263027.55"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }
    ], 
    "citation": [
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s11682-013-9257-9", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011987806", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s11682-013-9257-9"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s11065-007-9025-y", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017106351", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s11065-007-9025-y"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00234-004-1227-x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000695253", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00234-004-1227-x"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }
    ], 
    "datePublished": "2017-04-22", 
    "datePublishedReg": "2017-04-22", 
    "description": "We investigated potential brain volumetric differences in a sample of former high school football players many years after these injuries. Forty community-dwelling males ages 40\u201365 who played high school football, but not college or professional sports, were recruited. The experimental group (n\u00a0=\u00a020) endorsed experiencing two or more mTBIs on an empirically validated mTBI assessment tool (median\u00a0=\u00a03, range\u00a0=\u00a02\u201315). The control group (n\u00a0=\u00a020) denied ever experiencing an mTBI. Participants completed a self-report index of current mTBI symptomatology and underwent high-resolution T1-weighted MRI scanning, which were analyzed using the Freesurfer software package. A priori regions of interest (ROIs) included total intracranial volume (ICV), total gray matter, total white matter, bilateral anterior cingulate cortex, bilateral hippocampi, and lateral ventricles. ROIs were corrected for head size using a normalization method that took ICV into account. Despite an adequate sample size and being matched on age, education, estimated premorbid IQ, current concussive symptomatology, there were no statistically significant volumetric group differences across all of the ROIs. These data suggest that multiple mTBIs from high school football may not be associated with measurable brain atrophy later in life. Accounting for the severity of injury and chronicity of sport exposure may be especially important when measuring long-term neuroanatomical differences.", 
    "genre": "article", 
    "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s11682-017-9719-6", 
    "isAccessibleForFree": false, 
    "isPartOf": [
      {
        "id": "sg:journal.1038420", 
        "issn": [
          "1931-7557", 
          "1931-7565"
        ], 
        "name": "Brain Imaging and Behavior", 
        "publisher": "Springer Nature", 
        "type": "Periodical"
      }, 
      {
        "issueNumber": "3", 
        "type": "PublicationIssue"
      }, 
      {
        "type": "PublicationVolume", 
        "volumeNumber": "12"
      }
    ], 
    "keywords": [
      "high school football players", 
      "intracranial volume", 
      "high school football", 
      "bilateral anterior cingulate cortex", 
      "volumetric differences", 
      "mild traumatic brain injury", 
      "total white matter", 
      "total gray matter", 
      "brain volumetric differences", 
      "traumatic brain injury", 
      "severity of injury", 
      "total intracranial volume", 
      "anterior cingulate cortex", 
      "FreeSurfer software package", 
      "school football", 
      "volumetric group differences", 
      "football players", 
      "sports exposure", 
      "brain atrophy", 
      "brain injury", 
      "former high school football players", 
      "lateral ventricle", 
      "adequate sample size", 
      "bilateral hippocampus", 
      "age 40", 
      "MRI scanning", 
      "control group", 
      "white matter", 
      "cingulate cortex", 
      "region of interest", 
      "gray matter", 
      "injury", 
      "neuroanatomical differences", 
      "group differences", 
      "experimental group", 
      "symptomatology", 
      "assessment tool", 
      "head size", 
      "premorbid IQ", 
      "self-report indices", 
      "sample size", 
      "group", 
      "atrophy", 
      "chronicity", 
      "differences", 
      "hippocampus", 
      "ventricle", 
      "mTBIs", 
      "mTBI", 
      "cortex", 
      "severity", 
      "age", 
      "exposure", 
      "participants", 
      "years", 
      "football", 
      "index", 
      "sports", 
      "professional sports", 
      "life", 
      "College", 
      "IQ", 
      "scanning", 
      "players", 
      "volume", 
      "samples", 
      "data", 
      "education", 
      "size", 
      "tool", 
      "region", 
      "matter", 
      "method", 
      "interest", 
      "package", 
      "normalization method", 
      "software package", 
      "account"
    ], 
    "name": "Repeated mild traumatic brain injuries is not associated with volumetric differences in former high school football players", 
    "pagination": "631-639", 
    "productId": [
      {
        "name": "dimensions_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "pub.1085042200"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "doi", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "10.1007/s11682-017-9719-6"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "pubmed_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "28434160"
        ]
      }
    ], 
    "sameAs": [
      "https://doi.org/10.1007/s11682-017-9719-6", 
      "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1085042200"
    ], 
    "sdDataset": "articles", 
    "sdDatePublished": "2022-11-24T21:02", 
    "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
    "sdPublisher": {
      "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
      "type": "Organization"
    }, 
    "sdSource": "s3://com-springernature-scigraph/baseset/20221124/entities/gbq_results/article/article_743.jsonl", 
    "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
    "url": "https://doi.org/10.1007/s11682-017-9719-6"
  }
]
 

Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s11682-017-9719-6'

N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s11682-017-9719-6'

Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s11682-017-9719-6'

RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s11682-017-9719-6'


 

This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

215 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      119 URIs      108 LITERALS      20 BLANK NODES

Subject Predicate Object
1 sg:pub.10.1007/s11682-017-9719-6 schema:about N1d6d84774444464285a642e1ccc427df
2 N1da5c1a9ec164c83a0e5b2f3d1094ff3
3 N395f8c74a39547bca592b968f1e43114
4 N3cd7aea42cb34b57a0c7487d72e27367
5 N7f4e3cfca7aa47f7b20a7d79c0b197bf
6 N81fa1a0f8ca94facbbf289a640b2d22d
7 N8cc4eb358b7844d4b4decd68abc48650
8 Na9a816048d1e432fb6ddf24083eb87df
9 Nb4c285db46dd476a9a1b66d6edc8c594
10 Nb7bb6aa964254117bad58a2b33ba0312
11 Nedad56f3718044bb930a4156a8b67e60
12 Nf1b3b985f7834f479ae40c0c5f1597e9
13 Nfcef1414192b4c49b2c0c1aec007f682
14 anzsrc-for:11
15 anzsrc-for:1103
16 schema:author N5736a8ec0e1a4ff9be0149709fdeff68
17 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1007/s00234-004-1227-x
18 sg:pub.10.1007/s11065-007-9025-y
19 sg:pub.10.1007/s11682-013-9257-9
20 schema:datePublished 2017-04-22
21 schema:datePublishedReg 2017-04-22
22 schema:description We investigated potential brain volumetric differences in a sample of former high school football players many years after these injuries. Forty community-dwelling males ages 40–65 who played high school football, but not college or professional sports, were recruited. The experimental group (n = 20) endorsed experiencing two or more mTBIs on an empirically validated mTBI assessment tool (median = 3, range = 2–15). The control group (n = 20) denied ever experiencing an mTBI. Participants completed a self-report index of current mTBI symptomatology and underwent high-resolution T1-weighted MRI scanning, which were analyzed using the Freesurfer software package. A priori regions of interest (ROIs) included total intracranial volume (ICV), total gray matter, total white matter, bilateral anterior cingulate cortex, bilateral hippocampi, and lateral ventricles. ROIs were corrected for head size using a normalization method that took ICV into account. Despite an adequate sample size and being matched on age, education, estimated premorbid IQ, current concussive symptomatology, there were no statistically significant volumetric group differences across all of the ROIs. These data suggest that multiple mTBIs from high school football may not be associated with measurable brain atrophy later in life. Accounting for the severity of injury and chronicity of sport exposure may be especially important when measuring long-term neuroanatomical differences.
23 schema:genre article
24 schema:isAccessibleForFree false
25 schema:isPartOf N0d6b0f65b1704a619729c4a9d236a64b
26 Nc13891e82aaa4fd88746f415e9a7911a
27 sg:journal.1038420
28 schema:keywords College
29 FreeSurfer software package
30 IQ
31 MRI scanning
32 account
33 adequate sample size
34 age
35 age 40
36 anterior cingulate cortex
37 assessment tool
38 atrophy
39 bilateral anterior cingulate cortex
40 bilateral hippocampus
41 brain atrophy
42 brain injury
43 brain volumetric differences
44 chronicity
45 cingulate cortex
46 control group
47 cortex
48 data
49 differences
50 education
51 experimental group
52 exposure
53 football
54 football players
55 former high school football players
56 gray matter
57 group
58 group differences
59 head size
60 high school football
61 high school football players
62 hippocampus
63 index
64 injury
65 interest
66 intracranial volume
67 lateral ventricle
68 life
69 mTBI
70 mTBIs
71 matter
72 method
73 mild traumatic brain injury
74 neuroanatomical differences
75 normalization method
76 package
77 participants
78 players
79 premorbid IQ
80 professional sports
81 region
82 region of interest
83 sample size
84 samples
85 scanning
86 school football
87 self-report indices
88 severity
89 severity of injury
90 size
91 software package
92 sports
93 sports exposure
94 symptomatology
95 tool
96 total gray matter
97 total intracranial volume
98 total white matter
99 traumatic brain injury
100 ventricle
101 volume
102 volumetric differences
103 volumetric group differences
104 white matter
105 years
106 schema:name Repeated mild traumatic brain injuries is not associated with volumetric differences in former high school football players
107 schema:pagination 631-639
108 schema:productId N1a60f14dea4846ca84d282590686ddce
109 N71d65fe8f17747f29f3533c794681ba4
110 Nb1aa999b73be4454b4e933750d3b09b8
111 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1085042200
112 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11682-017-9719-6
113 schema:sdDatePublished 2022-11-24T21:02
114 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
115 schema:sdPublisher N170949ac6a1c4722a0aaf0fd068431d2
116 schema:url https://doi.org/10.1007/s11682-017-9719-6
117 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
118 sgo:sdDataset articles
119 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
120 N0d6b0f65b1704a619729c4a9d236a64b schema:volumeNumber 12
121 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
122 N170949ac6a1c4722a0aaf0fd068431d2 schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
123 rdf:type schema:Organization
124 N1a60f14dea4846ca84d282590686ddce schema:name pubmed_id
125 schema:value 28434160
126 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
127 N1d6d84774444464285a642e1ccc427df schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
128 schema:name Humans
129 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
130 N1da5c1a9ec164c83a0e5b2f3d1094ff3 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
131 schema:name Organ Size
132 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
133 N395f8c74a39547bca592b968f1e43114 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
134 schema:name Recurrence
135 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
136 N3cd7aea42cb34b57a0c7487d72e27367 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
137 schema:name Brain Concussion
138 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
139 N5736a8ec0e1a4ff9be0149709fdeff68 rdf:first sg:person.01105417306.55
140 rdf:rest N72784c7a92e34156ac06b0b057273664
141 N71d65fe8f17747f29f3533c794681ba4 schema:name doi
142 schema:value 10.1007/s11682-017-9719-6
143 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
144 N72784c7a92e34156ac06b0b057273664 rdf:first sg:person.0720263027.55
145 rdf:rest rdf:nil
146 N7f4e3cfca7aa47f7b20a7d79c0b197bf schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
147 schema:name Athletes
148 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
149 N81fa1a0f8ca94facbbf289a640b2d22d schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
150 schema:name Football
151 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
152 N8cc4eb358b7844d4b4decd68abc48650 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
153 schema:name Athletic Injuries
154 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
155 Na9a816048d1e432fb6ddf24083eb87df schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
156 schema:name Magnetic Resonance Imaging
157 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
158 Nb1aa999b73be4454b4e933750d3b09b8 schema:name dimensions_id
159 schema:value pub.1085042200
160 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
161 Nb4c285db46dd476a9a1b66d6edc8c594 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
162 schema:name Adult
163 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
164 Nb7bb6aa964254117bad58a2b33ba0312 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
165 schema:name Aged
166 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
167 Nc13891e82aaa4fd88746f415e9a7911a schema:issueNumber 3
168 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
169 Nedad56f3718044bb930a4156a8b67e60 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
170 schema:name Middle Aged
171 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
172 Nf1b3b985f7834f479ae40c0c5f1597e9 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
173 schema:name Brain
174 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
175 Nfcef1414192b4c49b2c0c1aec007f682 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
176 schema:name Male
177 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
178 anzsrc-for:11 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
179 schema:name Medical and Health Sciences
180 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
181 anzsrc-for:1103 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
182 schema:name Clinical Sciences
183 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
184 sg:journal.1038420 schema:issn 1931-7557
185 1931-7565
186 schema:name Brain Imaging and Behavior
187 schema:publisher Springer Nature
188 rdf:type schema:Periodical
189 sg:person.01105417306.55 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.32224.35
190 schema:familyName Terry
191 schema:givenName Douglas P.
192 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01105417306.55
193 rdf:type schema:Person
194 sg:person.0720263027.55 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.213876.9
195 schema:familyName Miller
196 schema:givenName L. Stephen
197 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0720263027.55
198 rdf:type schema:Person
199 sg:pub.10.1007/s00234-004-1227-x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000695253
200 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00234-004-1227-x
201 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
202 sg:pub.10.1007/s11065-007-9025-y schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017106351
203 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11065-007-9025-y
204 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
205 sg:pub.10.1007/s11682-013-9257-9 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011987806
206 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11682-013-9257-9
207 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
208 grid-institutes:grid.213876.9 schema:alternateName BioImaging Research Center, Biomedical & Health Science Institute, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA
209 schema:name BioImaging Research Center, Biomedical & Health Science Institute, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA
210 Department of Psychology, University of Georgia, 110 Hooper St, Psychology Building, Room 163, 30602, Athens, GA, USA
211 rdf:type schema:Organization
212 grid-institutes:grid.32224.35 schema:alternateName Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
213 schema:name Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Spaulding Rehabilitation Network, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
214 Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
215 rdf:type schema:Organization
 




Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


...