The State of the Art for Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing Process of Titanium Alloys for Aerospace Applications View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2022-07-27

AUTHORS

Dipayan Chakraborty, Tumula Tirumala, Srihari Chitral, B. N. Sahoo, D. V. Kiran, P. Ajay Kumar

ABSTRACT

Aerospace industries invest a significant amount of resources to meet one common goal, that is, to make the aircraft fly. To keep down its ‘buy-to-fly’ ratio, researchers have been working hard to introduce additive manufacturing (AM) technique for producing aerospace components. AM technologies are also now being used in major parts of an aircraft like fuel nozzles, turbofan blades, compressor-turbine blades, suspension wishbone, air ducts, etc., due to its just in time production with less complexity, direct tooling, and higher customer satisfaction with significant cost reduction including interior design. Nowadays, aerospace industries face problems meeting the deadline for delivering the aircraft components and replacement parts while maintaining certification standards. The wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) technique, one of the AM processes, can fabricate large metallic components with some reduction in lead time. WAAM process can build near net shape parts with high material deposition rate and efficiency while keeping the equipment and feedstock cost and material wastage minimal. This review paper summarizes the latest advancement on wire arc additive manufacturing of titanium and its alloy based on the aerospace application. Titanium and its alloys are used at a large scale in aircraft airframe structures and engine parts due to its high strength-to-weight ratio, excellent corrosion-resistant, high creep and fatigue resistance at an elevated temperature. It has been studied that the mechanical and metallographic properties of titanium and its alloy can be enhanced by using the WAAM process, and it is suited for aerospace applications. The paper will review the challenges like porosity, delamination, residual stress, crack propagation, anisotropic behavior, oxidation, etc., associated with the WAAM process on titanium alloys and propose recommendations for reducing the defects during the WAAM process. More... »

PAGES

6149-6182

References to SciGraph publications

  • 2016-11-26. Evaluation of genetic programming-based models for simulating bead dimensions in wire and arc additive manufacturing in JOURNAL OF INTELLIGENT MANUFACTURING
  • 2004-06. Microstructural evolution in laser-deposited multilayer Ti-6Al-4V builds: Part II. Thermal modeling in METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS A
  • 2021-04-20. A Review on Additive Manufacturing of Titanium Alloys for Aerospace Applications: Directed Energy Deposition and Beyond Ti-6Al-4V in JOM
  • 2018-07-17. Preliminary Investigation of Building Strategies of Maraging Steel Bulk Material Using Wire + Arc Additive Manufacture in JOURNAL OF MATERIALS ENGINEERING AND PERFORMANCE
  • 2014-04-11. A tool-path generation strategy for wire and arc additive manufacturing in THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY
  • 2018-11-17. Optimization strategies for robotic additive and subtractive manufacturing of large and high thin-walled aluminum structures in THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY
  • 2012-09-28. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Wire and Arc Additive Manufactured Ti-6Al-4V in METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS A
  • 2020-05-26. Influence of interpass cooling conditions on microstructure and tensile properties of Ti-6Al-4V parts manufactured by WAAM in WELDING IN THE WORLD
  • 2014-04-08. Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review in JOURNAL OF MATERIALS ENGINEERING AND PERFORMANCE
  • 2011-04-08. Morphology investigation on direct current pulsed gas tungsten arc welded additive layer manufactured Ti6Al4V alloy in THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY
  • 2021-06-18. Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing: A Comprehensive Review and Research Directions in JOURNAL OF MATERIALS ENGINEERING AND PERFORMANCE
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  • 2020-05-06. The Effectiveness of Grain Refinement by Machine Hammer Peening in High Deposition Rate Wire-Arc AM Ti-6Al-4V in METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS A
  • 2017-01-13. Studies on Dissimilar Twin-Wire Weld-Deposition for Additive Manufacturing Applications in TRANSACTIONS OF THE INDIAN INSTITUTE OF METALS
  • 2015-05-09. Wire-feed additive manufacturing of metal components: technologies, developments and future interests in THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY
  • 2005-12. Properties of TIMETAL 555 (Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-3Cr-0.6Fe) in JOURNAL OF MATERIALS ENGINEERING AND PERFORMANCE
  • 2020-04-19. Effects of Vertical and Pinch Rolling on Residual Stress Distributions in Wire and Arc Additively Manufactured Components in JOURNAL OF MATERIALS ENGINEERING AND PERFORMANCE
  • 2015-11-23. Fabrication of Fe-FeAl Functionally Graded Material Using the Wire-Arc Additive Manufacturing Process in METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS B
  • 2021-05-06. AA5083 (Al–Mg) plates produced by wire-and-arc additive manufacturing: effect of specimen orientation on microstructure and tensile properties in PROGRESS IN ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING
  • 2017-08-03. Arc Welding Processes for Additive Manufacturing: A Review in TRANSACTIONS ON INTELLIGENT WELDING MANUFACTURING
  • 2015-10-13. Microstructure of Interpass Rolled Wire + Arc Additive Manufacturing Ti-6Al-4V Components in METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS A
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    29 schema:description Aerospace industries invest a significant amount of resources to meet one common goal, that is, to make the aircraft fly. To keep down its ‘buy-to-fly’ ratio, researchers have been working hard to introduce additive manufacturing (AM) technique for producing aerospace components. AM technologies are also now being used in major parts of an aircraft like fuel nozzles, turbofan blades, compressor-turbine blades, suspension wishbone, air ducts, etc., due to its just in time production with less complexity, direct tooling, and higher customer satisfaction with significant cost reduction including interior design. Nowadays, aerospace industries face problems meeting the deadline for delivering the aircraft components and replacement parts while maintaining certification standards. The wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) technique, one of the AM processes, can fabricate large metallic components with some reduction in lead time. WAAM process can build near net shape parts with high material deposition rate and efficiency while keeping the equipment and feedstock cost and material wastage minimal. This review paper summarizes the latest advancement on wire arc additive manufacturing of titanium and its alloy based on the aerospace application. Titanium and its alloys are used at a large scale in aircraft airframe structures and engine parts due to its high strength-to-weight ratio, excellent corrosion-resistant, high creep and fatigue resistance at an elevated temperature. It has been studied that the mechanical and metallographic properties of titanium and its alloy can be enhanced by using the WAAM process, and it is suited for aerospace applications. The paper will review the challenges like porosity, delamination, residual stress, crack propagation, anisotropic behavior, oxidation, etc., associated with the WAAM process on titanium alloys and propose recommendations for reducing the defects during the WAAM process.
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