Properties of lead-free solder SnAgCu containing minute amounts of rare earth View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

2003-04

AUTHORS

Zhigang Chen, Yaowu Shi, Zhidong Xia, Yanfu Yan

ABSTRACT

Because of excellent wetting and mechanical properties, SnAgCu solder alloys have been regarded as the most promising Pb-free substitutes for the SnPb solder. The Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu solder has garnered attention because of its creep resistance. However, under the drives of increasingly finer pitch design and severe service conditions, novel lead-free solders with higher creep performance may be needed. Adding a surface-active element to an alloy is an effective way to improve the high-temperature performance of the solder. The present work focuses on the effect of rare earth (RE) on the physical properties, spreading property, and mechanical properties of SnAgCu solder. Results show that the creep-rupture life of SnAgCu solder joints at room temperature could be notably increased by adding a minute amount of RE, up to 7 times more than that of SnAgCu solder joints when containing 1.0wt.%RE. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) curves indicated that the melting temperature of SnAgCu solder with RE increased a little, and no lower melting-temperature, eutectic endothermal peak appears on the DSC curve. The electrical conductivity of the solder decreased slightly, but it is still superior to the SnPb eutectic solder. Compared to that of SnPb solder, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of SnAgCu (RE) is closer to copper, which usually serves as the substrate of printed circuit boards (PCBs). It is assumed that this will comparably reduce the thermal stress derived from thermal mismatch between the solder and the PCBs. The RE had no apparent effect on the spreading property, but when RE added up to 1.0 wt.%, the spreading area of the solder on the copper substrate decreased, obviously, because of mass oxide. The RE improved the ultimate tensile strength little, but it increased the elongation up to 30%. However, as the content of the RE increases, the elongation of the solder gradually decreased to the level of SnAgCu when the RE exceeds 0.25 wt.%. Additionally, RE made the elastic modulus of SnAgCu solder increase, so the resistance to elastic deformation of the solder is enhanced. The microstructure of SnAgCuRE led to a refining trend as the RE content increased. The RE compounds appeared in the solder when RE was 0.1 wt.%. This deteriorates the mechanical properties of the solder. The fractography of the tensile specimen containing 0.1 wt.% indicated a superior ductility to Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu bulk solder. However, as RE is increased to 1.0 wt.%, the fractography shows less ductile characteristics, which is believed to serve as the reason that the elongation of solder degrades as RE increases. Summarily, the most suitable content of RE is within 0.05–0.5 wt.% and is inadvisable beyond 1.0 wt.%. More... »

PAGES

235-243

References to SciGraph publications

  • 2001-02. Trends and issues in Pb-free soldering for electronic packaging in E & I ELEKTROTECHNIK UND INFORMATIONSTECHNIK
  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s11664-003-0215-y

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11664-003-0215-y

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044828523


    Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
    Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

    JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

    TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

    [
      {
        "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
        "about": [
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/09", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Engineering", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/0912", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Materials Engineering", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }
        ], 
        "author": [
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "The Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials of the Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Polytechnic University, 100022, Beijing, Republic of China", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.454828.7", 
              "name": [
                "The Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials of the Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Polytechnic University, 100022, Beijing, Republic of China"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Chen", 
            "givenName": "Zhigang", 
            "id": "sg:person.010532322231.60", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.010532322231.60"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "The Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials of the Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Polytechnic University, 100022, Beijing, Republic of China", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.454828.7", 
              "name": [
                "The Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials of the Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Polytechnic University, 100022, Beijing, Republic of China"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Shi", 
            "givenName": "Yaowu", 
            "id": "sg:person.010147557037.66", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.010147557037.66"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "The Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials of the Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Polytechnic University, 100022, Beijing, Republic of China", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.454828.7", 
              "name": [
                "The Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials of the Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Polytechnic University, 100022, Beijing, Republic of China"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Xia", 
            "givenName": "Zhidong", 
            "id": "sg:person.016447555263.38", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.016447555263.38"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "The Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials of the Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Polytechnic University, 100022, Beijing, Republic of China", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.454828.7", 
              "name": [
                "The Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials of the Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Polytechnic University, 100022, Beijing, Republic of China"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Yan", 
            "givenName": "Yanfu", 
            "id": "sg:person.07420730313.80", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.07420730313.80"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }
        ], 
        "citation": [
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf03157756", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022974539", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf03157756"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }
        ], 
        "datePublished": "2003-04", 
        "datePublishedReg": "2003-04-01", 
        "description": "Because of excellent wetting and mechanical properties, SnAgCu solder alloys have been regarded as the most promising Pb-free substitutes for the SnPb solder. The Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu solder has garnered attention because of its creep resistance. However, under the drives of increasingly finer pitch design and severe service conditions, novel lead-free solders with higher creep performance may be needed. Adding a surface-active element to an alloy is an effective way to improve the high-temperature performance of the solder. The present work focuses on the effect of rare earth (RE) on the physical properties, spreading property, and mechanical properties of SnAgCu solder. Results show that the creep-rupture life of SnAgCu solder joints at room temperature could be notably increased by adding a minute amount of RE, up to 7 times more than that of SnAgCu solder joints when containing 1.0wt.%RE. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) curves indicated that the melting temperature of SnAgCu solder with RE increased a little, and no lower melting-temperature, eutectic endothermal peak appears on the DSC curve. The electrical conductivity of the solder decreased slightly, but it is still superior to the SnPb eutectic solder. Compared to that of SnPb solder, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of SnAgCu (RE) is closer to copper, which usually serves as the substrate of printed circuit boards (PCBs). It is assumed that this will comparably reduce the thermal stress derived from thermal mismatch between the solder and the PCBs. The RE had no apparent effect on the spreading property, but when RE added up to 1.0 wt.%, the spreading area of the solder on the copper substrate decreased, obviously, because of mass oxide. The RE improved the ultimate tensile strength little, but it increased the elongation up to 30%. However, as the content of the RE increases, the elongation of the solder gradually decreased to the level of SnAgCu when the RE exceeds 0.25 wt.%. Additionally, RE made the elastic modulus of SnAgCu solder increase, so the resistance to elastic deformation of the solder is enhanced. The microstructure of SnAgCuRE led to a refining trend as the RE content increased. The RE compounds appeared in the solder when RE was 0.1 wt.%. This deteriorates the mechanical properties of the solder. The fractography of the tensile specimen containing 0.1 wt.% indicated a superior ductility to Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu bulk solder. However, as RE is increased to 1.0 wt.%, the fractography shows less ductile characteristics, which is believed to serve as the reason that the elongation of solder degrades as RE increases. Summarily, the most suitable content of RE is within 0.05\u20130.5 wt.% and is inadvisable beyond 1.0 wt.%.", 
        "genre": "article", 
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s11664-003-0215-y", 
        "inLanguage": "en", 
        "isAccessibleForFree": false, 
        "isPartOf": [
          {
            "id": "sg:journal.1136213", 
            "issn": [
              "0361-5235", 
              "1543-186X"
            ], 
            "name": "Journal of Electronic Materials", 
            "publisher": "Springer Nature", 
            "type": "Periodical"
          }, 
          {
            "issueNumber": "4", 
            "type": "PublicationIssue"
          }, 
          {
            "type": "PublicationVolume", 
            "volumeNumber": "32"
          }
        ], 
        "keywords": [
          "SnAgCu solder joints", 
          "mechanical properties", 
          "solder joints", 
          "SnAgCu solder", 
          "novel lead-free solder", 
          "SnPb solder", 
          "creep-rupture life", 
          "high-temperature performance", 
          "lead-free solders", 
          "surface-active elements", 
          "severe service conditions", 
          "ultimate tensile strength", 
          "SnAgCu solder alloy", 
          "SnPb eutectic solder", 
          "Pb-free substitutes", 
          "Re increases", 
          "fine pitch design", 
          "superior ductility", 
          "creep resistance", 
          "thermal mismatch", 
          "creep performance", 
          "solder alloy", 
          "excellent wetting", 
          "bulk solder", 
          "ductile characteristics", 
          "tensile strength", 
          "service conditions", 
          "eutectic solder", 
          "tensile specimen", 
          "solder increases", 
          "solder", 
          "thermal stress", 
          "elastic deformation", 
          "thermal expansion", 
          "elastic modulus", 
          "pitch design", 
          "copper substrate", 
          "rare earth", 
          "SnAgCu", 
          "circuit board", 
          "electrical conductivity", 
          "fractography", 
          "differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) curves", 
          "alloy", 
          "physical properties", 
          "suitable content", 
          "RE content", 
          "room temperature", 
          "calorimetry curves", 
          "melting temperature", 
          "present work", 
          "wt", 
          "properties", 
          "ductility", 
          "elongation", 
          "joints", 
          "temperature", 
          "microstructure", 
          "RE compounds", 
          "substrate", 
          "effective way", 
          "modulus", 
          "wetting", 
          "conductivity", 
          "deformation", 
          "performance", 
          "endothermal peak", 
          "DSC curves", 
          "resistance", 
          "strength", 
          "oxide", 
          "content", 
          "degrades", 
          "specimen", 
          "minute amounts", 
          "design", 
          "coefficient", 
          "curves", 
          "Earth", 
          "copper", 
          "stress", 
          "drive", 
          "PCBs", 
          "amount", 
          "mismatch", 
          "increase", 
          "characteristics", 
          "substitute", 
          "conditions", 
          "board", 
          "effect", 
          "work", 
          "elements", 
          "results", 
          "peak", 
          "expansion", 
          "area", 
          "time", 
          "way", 
          "trends", 
          "attention", 
          "reasons", 
          "compounds", 
          "life", 
          "apparent effect", 
          "levels", 
          "promising Pb-free substitutes", 
          "higher creep performance", 
          "scanning calorimetry (DSC) curves", 
          "eutectic endothermal peak", 
          "mass oxide", 
          "level of SnAgCu", 
          "SnAgCu solder increase", 
          "microstructure of SnAgCuRE", 
          "SnAgCuRE", 
          "refining trend", 
          "solder degrades", 
          "lead-free solder SnAgCu", 
          "solder SnAgCu"
        ], 
        "name": "Properties of lead-free solder SnAgCu containing minute amounts of rare earth", 
        "pagination": "235-243", 
        "productId": [
          {
            "name": "dimensions_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "pub.1044828523"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "doi", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "10.1007/s11664-003-0215-y"
            ]
          }
        ], 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s11664-003-0215-y", 
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044828523"
        ], 
        "sdDataset": "articles", 
        "sdDatePublished": "2022-01-01T18:13", 
        "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
        "sdPublisher": {
          "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "sdSource": "s3://com-springernature-scigraph/baseset/20220101/entities/gbq_results/article/article_374.jsonl", 
        "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
        "url": "https://doi.org/10.1007/s11664-003-0215-y"
      }
    ]
     

    Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

    HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

    JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s11664-003-0215-y'

    N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s11664-003-0215-y'

    Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

    curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s11664-003-0215-y'

    RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s11664-003-0215-y'


     

    This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

    202 TRIPLES      22 PREDICATES      146 URIs      137 LITERALS      6 BLANK NODES

    Subject Predicate Object
    1 sg:pub.10.1007/s11664-003-0215-y schema:about anzsrc-for:09
    2 anzsrc-for:0912
    3 schema:author Nd262f1b9e53448cab5080f3ff01c595d
    4 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1007/bf03157756
    5 schema:datePublished 2003-04
    6 schema:datePublishedReg 2003-04-01
    7 schema:description Because of excellent wetting and mechanical properties, SnAgCu solder alloys have been regarded as the most promising Pb-free substitutes for the SnPb solder. The Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu solder has garnered attention because of its creep resistance. However, under the drives of increasingly finer pitch design and severe service conditions, novel lead-free solders with higher creep performance may be needed. Adding a surface-active element to an alloy is an effective way to improve the high-temperature performance of the solder. The present work focuses on the effect of rare earth (RE) on the physical properties, spreading property, and mechanical properties of SnAgCu solder. Results show that the creep-rupture life of SnAgCu solder joints at room temperature could be notably increased by adding a minute amount of RE, up to 7 times more than that of SnAgCu solder joints when containing 1.0wt.%RE. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) curves indicated that the melting temperature of SnAgCu solder with RE increased a little, and no lower melting-temperature, eutectic endothermal peak appears on the DSC curve. The electrical conductivity of the solder decreased slightly, but it is still superior to the SnPb eutectic solder. Compared to that of SnPb solder, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of SnAgCu (RE) is closer to copper, which usually serves as the substrate of printed circuit boards (PCBs). It is assumed that this will comparably reduce the thermal stress derived from thermal mismatch between the solder and the PCBs. The RE had no apparent effect on the spreading property, but when RE added up to 1.0 wt.%, the spreading area of the solder on the copper substrate decreased, obviously, because of mass oxide. The RE improved the ultimate tensile strength little, but it increased the elongation up to 30%. However, as the content of the RE increases, the elongation of the solder gradually decreased to the level of SnAgCu when the RE exceeds 0.25 wt.%. Additionally, RE made the elastic modulus of SnAgCu solder increase, so the resistance to elastic deformation of the solder is enhanced. The microstructure of SnAgCuRE led to a refining trend as the RE content increased. The RE compounds appeared in the solder when RE was 0.1 wt.%. This deteriorates the mechanical properties of the solder. The fractography of the tensile specimen containing 0.1 wt.% indicated a superior ductility to Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu bulk solder. However, as RE is increased to 1.0 wt.%, the fractography shows less ductile characteristics, which is believed to serve as the reason that the elongation of solder degrades as RE increases. Summarily, the most suitable content of RE is within 0.05–0.5 wt.% and is inadvisable beyond 1.0 wt.%.
    8 schema:genre article
    9 schema:inLanguage en
    10 schema:isAccessibleForFree false
    11 schema:isPartOf N9aee84991fcf45bf9f57aeb28acc248a
    12 Nde29bb353d5245c792222119ce0cb82c
    13 sg:journal.1136213
    14 schema:keywords DSC curves
    15 Earth
    16 PCBs
    17 Pb-free substitutes
    18 RE compounds
    19 RE content
    20 Re increases
    21 SnAgCu
    22 SnAgCu solder
    23 SnAgCu solder alloy
    24 SnAgCu solder increase
    25 SnAgCu solder joints
    26 SnAgCuRE
    27 SnPb eutectic solder
    28 SnPb solder
    29 alloy
    30 amount
    31 apparent effect
    32 area
    33 attention
    34 board
    35 bulk solder
    36 calorimetry curves
    37 characteristics
    38 circuit board
    39 coefficient
    40 compounds
    41 conditions
    42 conductivity
    43 content
    44 copper
    45 copper substrate
    46 creep performance
    47 creep resistance
    48 creep-rupture life
    49 curves
    50 deformation
    51 degrades
    52 design
    53 differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) curves
    54 drive
    55 ductile characteristics
    56 ductility
    57 effect
    58 effective way
    59 elastic deformation
    60 elastic modulus
    61 electrical conductivity
    62 elements
    63 elongation
    64 endothermal peak
    65 eutectic endothermal peak
    66 eutectic solder
    67 excellent wetting
    68 expansion
    69 fine pitch design
    70 fractography
    71 high-temperature performance
    72 higher creep performance
    73 increase
    74 joints
    75 lead-free solder SnAgCu
    76 lead-free solders
    77 level of SnAgCu
    78 levels
    79 life
    80 mass oxide
    81 mechanical properties
    82 melting temperature
    83 microstructure
    84 microstructure of SnAgCuRE
    85 minute amounts
    86 mismatch
    87 modulus
    88 novel lead-free solder
    89 oxide
    90 peak
    91 performance
    92 physical properties
    93 pitch design
    94 present work
    95 promising Pb-free substitutes
    96 properties
    97 rare earth
    98 reasons
    99 refining trend
    100 resistance
    101 results
    102 room temperature
    103 scanning calorimetry (DSC) curves
    104 service conditions
    105 severe service conditions
    106 solder
    107 solder SnAgCu
    108 solder alloy
    109 solder degrades
    110 solder increases
    111 solder joints
    112 specimen
    113 strength
    114 stress
    115 substitute
    116 substrate
    117 suitable content
    118 superior ductility
    119 surface-active elements
    120 temperature
    121 tensile specimen
    122 tensile strength
    123 thermal expansion
    124 thermal mismatch
    125 thermal stress
    126 time
    127 trends
    128 ultimate tensile strength
    129 way
    130 wetting
    131 work
    132 wt
    133 schema:name Properties of lead-free solder SnAgCu containing minute amounts of rare earth
    134 schema:pagination 235-243
    135 schema:productId N099475dbc48b4018a16cd3654b1afeed
    136 N401744659c71457481f70e86dde73e26
    137 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044828523
    138 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11664-003-0215-y
    139 schema:sdDatePublished 2022-01-01T18:13
    140 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
    141 schema:sdPublisher Nc5163fa530f44db69f198d2e566d03e0
    142 schema:url https://doi.org/10.1007/s11664-003-0215-y
    143 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
    144 sgo:sdDataset articles
    145 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
    146 N0096ff6bfde24230a0fe3e1822e47aaa rdf:first sg:person.010147557037.66
    147 rdf:rest N5fba09c58b0147e5b1cbeeeebbb0b136
    148 N099475dbc48b4018a16cd3654b1afeed schema:name dimensions_id
    149 schema:value pub.1044828523
    150 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    151 N401744659c71457481f70e86dde73e26 schema:name doi
    152 schema:value 10.1007/s11664-003-0215-y
    153 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    154 N5fba09c58b0147e5b1cbeeeebbb0b136 rdf:first sg:person.016447555263.38
    155 rdf:rest N973ef07c2b20429ea5534ecd63d7a7ef
    156 N973ef07c2b20429ea5534ecd63d7a7ef rdf:first sg:person.07420730313.80
    157 rdf:rest rdf:nil
    158 N9aee84991fcf45bf9f57aeb28acc248a schema:volumeNumber 32
    159 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
    160 Nc5163fa530f44db69f198d2e566d03e0 schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
    161 rdf:type schema:Organization
    162 Nd262f1b9e53448cab5080f3ff01c595d rdf:first sg:person.010532322231.60
    163 rdf:rest N0096ff6bfde24230a0fe3e1822e47aaa
    164 Nde29bb353d5245c792222119ce0cb82c schema:issueNumber 4
    165 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
    166 anzsrc-for:09 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    167 schema:name Engineering
    168 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    169 anzsrc-for:0912 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    170 schema:name Materials Engineering
    171 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    172 sg:journal.1136213 schema:issn 0361-5235
    173 1543-186X
    174 schema:name Journal of Electronic Materials
    175 schema:publisher Springer Nature
    176 rdf:type schema:Periodical
    177 sg:person.010147557037.66 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.454828.7
    178 schema:familyName Shi
    179 schema:givenName Yaowu
    180 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.010147557037.66
    181 rdf:type schema:Person
    182 sg:person.010532322231.60 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.454828.7
    183 schema:familyName Chen
    184 schema:givenName Zhigang
    185 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.010532322231.60
    186 rdf:type schema:Person
    187 sg:person.016447555263.38 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.454828.7
    188 schema:familyName Xia
    189 schema:givenName Zhidong
    190 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.016447555263.38
    191 rdf:type schema:Person
    192 sg:person.07420730313.80 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.454828.7
    193 schema:familyName Yan
    194 schema:givenName Yanfu
    195 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.07420730313.80
    196 rdf:type schema:Person
    197 sg:pub.10.1007/bf03157756 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022974539
    198 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf03157756
    199 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    200 grid-institutes:grid.454828.7 schema:alternateName The Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials of the Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Polytechnic University, 100022, Beijing, Republic of China
    201 schema:name The Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials of the Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Polytechnic University, 100022, Beijing, Republic of China
    202 rdf:type schema:Organization
     




    Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


    ...