Carbothermic reduction of llmenite (FeTiO3) and rutile (TiO2) View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

1999-12

AUTHORS

N. J. Welham, J. S. Williams

ABSTRACT

The mechanically activated carbothermic reduction mechanism of ilmenite has been examined by a combination of steady-state and dynamic thermal techniques coupled with X-ray diffraction. The reaction was found to proceed via an initial, rapid reduction to elemental iron and rutile, which was followed by a slow reduction of rutile to a series of oxides of the general formula TinO2n−1 until Ti3O5 was formed, which was found to be relatively stable. Iron was probably incorporated into the TinO2n−1 lattice only for n>3, forming mixed oxides of uncertain composition. The formation of TiC was evident at temperatures as low as 1100 °C, but the rate of reaction was extremely slow, presumably due to a solid-state diffusion limitation. Increasing the temperature gave increasing conversion of TiO2 to TiC until it was the only confirmed product. The effect of iron on the later stages of reduction was removed by examining the reduction of pure rutile. It was found that the reduction of Ti3O5 was enhanced by the presence of iron. The separation of iron from the titanium product proved to be high, with > 90 pct of iron removed after the initial reduction. The iron removal increased slowly to almost 100 pct when elemental iron and titanium carbide were the products. More... »

PAGES

1075-1081

References to SciGraph publications

  • 1996-01. Preparation of TiB2 and ZrB2. influence of a mechano-chemical treatment on the borothermic reduction of titania and zirconia in JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE
  • 1995-05. Simultaneous reduction and carburization of ilmenite in METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS B
  • 1998-02. Kinetics and phase evolution during carbothermal synthesis of titanium carbide from ultrafine titania/carbon mixture in JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE
  • 1992-01. Carbothermal synthesis of titanium nitride in JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE
  • 1996-07. Milling dynamics: Part II. dynamics of a SPEX mill and a one-dimensional mill in METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS A
  • 1997-01. Carbothermal synthesis of titanium carbide using ultrafine titania powders in JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE
  • 1998-08. Multicarbide Formation Direct from Concentrate in JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE LETTERS
  • 1992-01. Carbothermal synthesis of titanium nitride in JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE
  • 1998-10. Formation of TiN/TiC-Fe composites from ilmenite (FeTiO3) concentrate in METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS B
  • 1992-01. Carbothermal synthesis of titanium nitride in JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE
  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s11663-999-0113-7

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11663-999-0113-7

    DIMENSIONS

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    42 schema:description The mechanically activated carbothermic reduction mechanism of ilmenite has been examined by a combination of steady-state and dynamic thermal techniques coupled with X-ray diffraction. The reaction was found to proceed via an initial, rapid reduction to elemental iron and rutile, which was followed by a slow reduction of rutile to a series of oxides of the general formula TinO2n−1 until Ti3O5 was formed, which was found to be relatively stable. Iron was probably incorporated into the TinO2n−1 lattice only for n>3, forming mixed oxides of uncertain composition. The formation of TiC was evident at temperatures as low as 1100 °C, but the rate of reaction was extremely slow, presumably due to a solid-state diffusion limitation. Increasing the temperature gave increasing conversion of TiO2 to TiC until it was the only confirmed product. The effect of iron on the later stages of reduction was removed by examining the reduction of pure rutile. It was found that the reduction of Ti3O5 was enhanced by the presence of iron. The separation of iron from the titanium product proved to be high, with > 90 pct of iron removed after the initial reduction. The iron removal increased slowly to almost 100 pct when elemental iron and titanium carbide were the products.
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