Quenching and Partitioning–Based Heat Treatment for Rolled Grinding Steel Balls View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2020-04-06

AUTHORS

V. I. Zurnadzhy, V. G. Efremenko, K. M. Wu, A. G. Lekatou, K. Shimizu, Yu. G. Chabak, D. S. Zotov, E. V. Dunayev

ABSTRACT

A “Quenching and Partitioning” (Q&P)–based heat treatment has been applied to rolled grinding steel (0.75 wt pct C-Mn-Cr) balls of 104-mm diameter to prevent their cracking during heat treatment. The conventional route of ball manufacturing includes rolling, water quenching interrupted when the bulk average temperature is 220 °C to 250 °C, and self-tempering in a large pile. This technology leads to cracking when the balls are made of steel of high hardenability. To overcome this deficiency, the Q&P principle is herein adopted by (a) adjusting the quenching duration to cool the ball center below the martensite start (Ms) temperature and (b) instead of self-tempering applying furnace tempering. The target bulk temperature of the ball that ensures an optimal “martensite/retained austenite” ratio inside the ball at the moment of water quenching interruption is determined as 125 °C to 170 °C. Quenching should be followed by tempering at 200 °C to 250 °C for stress release at the surface and carbon partitioning from martensite to austenite in the core. The resulting microstructure varies from tempered martensite in the “shell” layers to a mixture of martensite-bainite and retained austenite (RA) in the inner zones, where the austenite content is 25 to 30 vol pct. The carbon enrichment in austenite toward the core of the ball leads to balanced stresses and prevention of ball cracking. Q&P-heat-treated balls in an industrial-scale trial attained a uniform hardness of approximately 55 HRC through the cross section and a high fracture resistance under repetitive impacts of 6.8 kJ energy each. More... »

PAGES

3042-3053

References to SciGraph publications

  • 2017-06. Production of grinding balls resistant to abrasive wear in STEEL IN TRANSLATION
  • 1989-05-01. Evaluation of commercial US grinding balls by laboratory impact and abrasion tests in MINING, METALLURGY & EXPLORATION
  • 2017-07. Application of the Q-n-P-Treatment for Increasing the Wear Resistance of Low-Alloy Steel with 0.75% C in MATERIALS SCIENCE
  • 2015-01-21. Carbon Enrichment in Austenite During Bainite Transformation in Fe-3Mn-C Alloy in METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS A
  • 2011-08-09. Development of New High-Strength Carbide-Free Bainitic Steels in METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS A
  • 2015-12-29. Effect of Prior Athermal Martensite on the Isothermal Transformation Kinetics Below Ms in a Low-C High-Si Steel in METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS A
  • 2010-02-12. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of an Ultrahigh-Strength 40SiMnNiCr Steel during the One-Step Quenching and Partitioning Process in METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS A
  • 2001-07. Effect of Heat Treatment on the Properties of Highly Hardenable Rolled Milling Balls in METAL SCIENCE AND HEAT TREATMENT
  • 2017-01. Effect of bulk heat treatment and plasma surface hardening on the microstructure and erosion wear resistance of complex-alloyed cast irons with spheroidal vanadium carbides in JOURNAL OF FRICTION AND WEAR
  • 1990-08. Heat treatment of rail steel using induction heating in METAL SCIENCE AND HEAT TREATMENT
  • 2013-07-26. Quenching and Partitioning Steel Heat Treatment in METALLOGRAPHY, MICROSTRUCTURE, AND ANALYSIS
  • 2017-09. Effect of Heat Treatment on the Hardness and Wear of Grinding Balls in METAL SCIENCE AND HEAT TREATMENT
  • 2016-02-27. Effect of lower bainite/martensite/retained austenite triplex microstructure on the mechanical properties of a low-carbon steel with quenching and partitioning process in INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MINERALS, METALLURGY AND MATERIALS
  • 2015-09-10. High Wear Resistance of White Cast Iron Treated by Novel Process: Principle and Mechanism in METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS A
  • 2008-02. Improving the hardness of OAO Azovstal Metallurgical Combine steel balls for crushing mills in STEEL IN TRANSLATION
  • 2014-01. Introduction of Three-Stage Thermal Hardening Technology for Large Diameter Grinding Balls in METALLURGIST
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    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s11661-020-05737-w

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    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11661-020-05737-w

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    72 prevention
    73 principles
    74 quenching
    75 ratio
    76 release
    77 repetitive impacts
    78 resistance
    79 rolling
    80 route
    81 sections
    82 shell
    83 start temperature
    84 steel
    85 steel ball
    86 stress
    87 stress release
    88 surface
    89 technology
    90 temperature
    91 tempering
    92 treatment
    93 trials
    94 uniform hardness
    95 varies
    96 vol pct
    97 water
    98 water quenching
    99 zone
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