Diffusion Bonding of Microduplex Stainless Steel and Ti Alloy with and without Interlayer: Interface Microstructure and Strength Properties View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

2013-10-03

AUTHORS

S. Kundu, S. Sam, B. Mishra, S. Chatterjee

ABSTRACT

The interface microstructure and strength properties of solid state diffusion bonding of microduplex stainless steel (MDSS) to Ti alloy (TiA) with and without a Ni alloy (NiA) intermediate material were investigated at 1173 K (900 °C) for 0.9 to 5.4 ks in steps of 0.9 ks in vacuum. The effects of bonding time on the microstructure of the bonded joint have been analyzed by light optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy in the backscattered mode. In the direct bonded joints of MDSS and TiA, the layer-wise σ phase and the λ + FeTi phase mixture were observed at the bond interface when the joint was processed for 2.7 ks and above holding times. However, when NiA was used as an intermediate material, the results indicated that TiNi3, TiNi, and Ti2Ni are formed at the NiA-TiA interface, and the irregular shaped particles of Fe22Mo20Ni45Ti13 have been observed within the TiNi3 intermetallic layer. The stainless steel-NiA interface is free from intermetallics and the layer of austenitic phase was observed at the stainless steel side. A maximum tensile strength of ~520 MPa, shear strength of ~405 MPa, and impact toughness of ~18 J were obtained for the directly bonded joint when processed for 2.7 ks. However, when nickel base alloy was used as an intermediate material in the same materials, the bond tensile and shear strengths increase to ~640 and ~479 MPa, respectively, and the impact toughness to ~21 J when bonding was processed for 4.5 ks. Fracture surface observations in scanning electron microscopy using energy dispersive spectroscopy demonstrate that in MDSS-TiA joints, failure takes place through the FeTi + λ phase when bonding was processed for 2.7 ks; however, failure takes place through σ phase for the diffusion joints processed for 3.6 ks and above processing times. However, in MDSS-NiA-TiA joints, the fracture takes place through NiTi2 layer at the NiA-TiA interface for all bonding times. More... »

PAGES

371-383

References to SciGraph publications

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s11661-013-1977-3

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11661-013-1977-3

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052871562


Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

[
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "about": [
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/09", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Engineering", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/0912", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Materials Engineering", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }
    ], 
    "author": [
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, 711103, Howrah, West Bengal, India", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.440667.7", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, 711103, Howrah, West Bengal, India"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Kundu", 
        "givenName": "S.", 
        "id": "sg:person.012640625735.37", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.012640625735.37"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, 711103, Howrah, West Bengal, India", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.440667.7", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, 711103, Howrah, West Bengal, India"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Sam", 
        "givenName": "S.", 
        "id": "sg:person.014306534653.00", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.014306534653.00"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St, 80401, Golden, CO, USA", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.254549.b", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St, 80401, Golden, CO, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Mishra", 
        "givenName": "B.", 
        "id": "sg:person.01022526340.57", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01022526340.57"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, 711103, Howrah, West Bengal, India", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.440667.7", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, 711103, Howrah, West Bengal, India"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Chatterjee", 
        "givenName": "S.", 
        "id": "sg:person.016424110335.47", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.016424110335.47"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }
    ], 
    "citation": [
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s10853-007-1935-9", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009124658", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-007-1935-9"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s10853-005-1629-0", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003300532", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-005-1629-0"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf02586140", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006354557", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02586140"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s11661-007-9457-2", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011372091", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s11661-007-9457-2"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00170-008-1493-6", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013735740", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-008-1493-6"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }
    ], 
    "datePublished": "2013-10-03", 
    "datePublishedReg": "2013-10-03", 
    "description": "The interface microstructure and strength properties of solid state diffusion bonding of microduplex stainless steel (MDSS) to Ti alloy (TiA) with and without a Ni alloy (NiA) intermediate material were investigated at 1173\u00a0K (900\u00a0\u00b0C) for 0.9\u00a0to 5.4\u00a0ks in steps of 0.9\u00a0ks in vacuum. The effects of bonding time on the microstructure of the bonded joint have been analyzed by light optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy in the backscattered mode. In the direct bonded joints of MDSS and TiA, the layer-wise \u03c3 phase and the \u03bb\u00a0+\u00a0FeTi phase mixture were observed at the bond interface when the joint was processed for 2.7\u00a0ks and above holding times. However, when NiA was used as an intermediate material, the results indicated that TiNi3, TiNi, and Ti2Ni are formed at the NiA-TiA interface, and the irregular shaped particles of Fe22Mo20Ni45Ti13 have been observed within the TiNi3\u00a0intermetallic layer. The stainless steel-NiA interface is free from intermetallics and the layer of austenitic phase was observed at the stainless steel side. A maximum tensile strength of ~520\u00a0MPa, shear strength of ~405\u00a0MPa, and impact toughness of ~18\u00a0J were obtained for the directly bonded joint when processed for 2.7\u00a0ks. However, when nickel base alloy was used as an intermediate material in the same materials, the bond tensile and shear strengths increase to ~640 and ~479\u00a0MPa, respectively, and the impact toughness to ~21\u00a0J when bonding was processed for 4.5\u00a0ks. Fracture surface observations in scanning electron microscopy using energy dispersive spectroscopy demonstrate that in MDSS-TiA joints, failure takes place through the FeTi\u00a0+\u00a0\u03bb phase when bonding was processed for 2.7\u00a0ks; however, failure takes place through \u03c3 phase for the diffusion joints processed for 3.6\u00a0ks and above processing times. However, in MDSS-NiA-TiA joints, the fracture takes place through NiTi2 layer at the NiA-TiA interface for all bonding times.", 
    "genre": "article", 
    "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s11661-013-1977-3", 
    "inLanguage": "en", 
    "isAccessibleForFree": false, 
    "isPartOf": [
      {
        "id": "sg:journal.1136292", 
        "issn": [
          "1073-5623", 
          "1543-1940"
        ], 
        "name": "Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A", 
        "publisher": "Springer Nature", 
        "type": "Periodical"
      }, 
      {
        "issueNumber": "1", 
        "type": "PublicationIssue"
      }, 
      {
        "type": "PublicationVolume", 
        "volumeNumber": "45"
      }
    ], 
    "keywords": [
      "microduplex stainless steel", 
      "diffusion bonding", 
      "interface microstructure", 
      "stainless steel", 
      "Ti alloy", 
      "strength properties", 
      "shear strength", 
      "intermediate materials", 
      "solid state diffusion bonding", 
      "stainless steel side", 
      "nickel base alloys", 
      "fracture surface observations", 
      "maximum tensile strength", 
      "irregular shaped particles", 
      "energy dispersive spectroscopy", 
      "light optical microscopy", 
      "steel side", 
      "diffusion joints", 
      "impact toughness", 
      "base alloy", 
      "intermetallic layer", 
      "bonding time", 
      "bond interface", 
      "tensile strength", 
      "electron microscopy", 
      "scanning electron microscopy", 
      "austenitic phase", 
      "dispersive spectroscopy", 
      "microstructure", 
      "alloy", 
      "MPa", 
      "phase mixture", 
      "toughness", 
      "steel", 
      "optical microscopy", 
      "shaped particles", 
      "TiNi3", 
      "same material", 
      "surface observations", 
      "layer", 
      "ks", 
      "interface", 
      "joints", 
      "materials", 
      "strength", 
      "processing time", 
      "bonding", 
      "Ti2Ni", 
      "TiNi", 
      "microscopy", 
      "intermetallics", 
      "properties", 
      "interlayer", 
      "phase", 
      "FeTi", 
      "particles", 
      "vacuum", 
      "fractures", 
      "KS", 
      "mixture", 
      "mode", 
      "time", 
      "failure", 
      "spectroscopy", 
      "side", 
      "step", 
      "place", 
      "results", 
      "effect", 
      "observations", 
      "bonds", 
      "NIA", 
      "TIA", 
      "state diffusion bonding", 
      "Ni alloy (NiA) intermediate material", 
      "alloy (NiA) intermediate material", 
      "joints of MDSS", 
      "FeTi phase mixture", 
      "NiA-TiA interface", 
      "Fe22Mo20Ni45Ti13", 
      "stainless steel-NiA interface", 
      "steel-NiA interface", 
      "MDSS-TiA joints", 
      "MDSS-NiA-TiA joints", 
      "NiTi2 layer"
    ], 
    "name": "Diffusion Bonding of Microduplex Stainless Steel and Ti Alloy with and without Interlayer: Interface Microstructure and Strength Properties", 
    "pagination": "371-383", 
    "productId": [
      {
        "name": "dimensions_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "pub.1052871562"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "doi", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "10.1007/s11661-013-1977-3"
        ]
      }
    ], 
    "sameAs": [
      "https://doi.org/10.1007/s11661-013-1977-3", 
      "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052871562"
    ], 
    "sdDataset": "articles", 
    "sdDatePublished": "2022-01-01T18:30", 
    "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
    "sdPublisher": {
      "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
      "type": "Organization"
    }, 
    "sdSource": "s3://com-springernature-scigraph/baseset/20220101/entities/gbq_results/article/article_600.jsonl", 
    "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
    "url": "https://doi.org/10.1007/s11661-013-1977-3"
  }
]
 

Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s11661-013-1977-3'

N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s11661-013-1977-3'

Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s11661-013-1977-3'

RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s11661-013-1977-3'


 

This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

187 TRIPLES      22 PREDICATES      115 URIs      102 LITERALS      6 BLANK NODES

Subject Predicate Object
1 sg:pub.10.1007/s11661-013-1977-3 schema:about anzsrc-for:09
2 anzsrc-for:0912
3 schema:author N3705f9e9817e4d1f8d62360136fe1954
4 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1007/bf02586140
5 sg:pub.10.1007/s00170-008-1493-6
6 sg:pub.10.1007/s10853-005-1629-0
7 sg:pub.10.1007/s10853-007-1935-9
8 sg:pub.10.1007/s11661-007-9457-2
9 schema:datePublished 2013-10-03
10 schema:datePublishedReg 2013-10-03
11 schema:description The interface microstructure and strength properties of solid state diffusion bonding of microduplex stainless steel (MDSS) to Ti alloy (TiA) with and without a Ni alloy (NiA) intermediate material were investigated at 1173 K (900 °C) for 0.9 to 5.4 ks in steps of 0.9 ks in vacuum. The effects of bonding time on the microstructure of the bonded joint have been analyzed by light optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy in the backscattered mode. In the direct bonded joints of MDSS and TiA, the layer-wise σ phase and the λ + FeTi phase mixture were observed at the bond interface when the joint was processed for 2.7 ks and above holding times. However, when NiA was used as an intermediate material, the results indicated that TiNi3, TiNi, and Ti2Ni are formed at the NiA-TiA interface, and the irregular shaped particles of Fe22Mo20Ni45Ti13 have been observed within the TiNi3 intermetallic layer. The stainless steel-NiA interface is free from intermetallics and the layer of austenitic phase was observed at the stainless steel side. A maximum tensile strength of ~520 MPa, shear strength of ~405 MPa, and impact toughness of ~18 J were obtained for the directly bonded joint when processed for 2.7 ks. However, when nickel base alloy was used as an intermediate material in the same materials, the bond tensile and shear strengths increase to ~640 and ~479 MPa, respectively, and the impact toughness to ~21 J when bonding was processed for 4.5 ks. Fracture surface observations in scanning electron microscopy using energy dispersive spectroscopy demonstrate that in MDSS-TiA joints, failure takes place through the FeTi + λ phase when bonding was processed for 2.7 ks; however, failure takes place through σ phase for the diffusion joints processed for 3.6 ks and above processing times. However, in MDSS-NiA-TiA joints, the fracture takes place through NiTi2 layer at the NiA-TiA interface for all bonding times.
12 schema:genre article
13 schema:inLanguage en
14 schema:isAccessibleForFree false
15 schema:isPartOf N1c05a6004cc44165afa29846e72438e3
16 Nf9ebd1bd3f8f4c8ea385698e999b7e17
17 sg:journal.1136292
18 schema:keywords Fe22Mo20Ni45Ti13
19 FeTi
20 FeTi phase mixture
21 KS
22 MDSS-NiA-TiA joints
23 MDSS-TiA joints
24 MPa
25 NIA
26 Ni alloy (NiA) intermediate material
27 NiA-TiA interface
28 NiTi2 layer
29 TIA
30 Ti alloy
31 Ti2Ni
32 TiNi
33 TiNi3
34 alloy
35 alloy (NiA) intermediate material
36 austenitic phase
37 base alloy
38 bond interface
39 bonding
40 bonding time
41 bonds
42 diffusion bonding
43 diffusion joints
44 dispersive spectroscopy
45 effect
46 electron microscopy
47 energy dispersive spectroscopy
48 failure
49 fracture surface observations
50 fractures
51 impact toughness
52 interface
53 interface microstructure
54 interlayer
55 intermediate materials
56 intermetallic layer
57 intermetallics
58 irregular shaped particles
59 joints
60 joints of MDSS
61 ks
62 layer
63 light optical microscopy
64 materials
65 maximum tensile strength
66 microduplex stainless steel
67 microscopy
68 microstructure
69 mixture
70 mode
71 nickel base alloys
72 observations
73 optical microscopy
74 particles
75 phase
76 phase mixture
77 place
78 processing time
79 properties
80 results
81 same material
82 scanning electron microscopy
83 shaped particles
84 shear strength
85 side
86 solid state diffusion bonding
87 spectroscopy
88 stainless steel
89 stainless steel side
90 stainless steel-NiA interface
91 state diffusion bonding
92 steel
93 steel side
94 steel-NiA interface
95 step
96 strength
97 strength properties
98 surface observations
99 tensile strength
100 time
101 toughness
102 vacuum
103 schema:name Diffusion Bonding of Microduplex Stainless Steel and Ti Alloy with and without Interlayer: Interface Microstructure and Strength Properties
104 schema:pagination 371-383
105 schema:productId Nb9af0e3a16924efdae28d0e5de54bfd7
106 Nc6351a88af0e4d9d9d6071b0ce718bd8
107 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052871562
108 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11661-013-1977-3
109 schema:sdDatePublished 2022-01-01T18:30
110 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
111 schema:sdPublisher N7354cf7a5aaf4b92a7a86926f76fe68e
112 schema:url https://doi.org/10.1007/s11661-013-1977-3
113 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
114 sgo:sdDataset articles
115 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
116 N0469c22dd20b4b1e9d0979a70a97b8b4 rdf:first sg:person.01022526340.57
117 rdf:rest N34ca2c78746d41e58800db062858ce9f
118 N1c05a6004cc44165afa29846e72438e3 schema:volumeNumber 45
119 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
120 N34ca2c78746d41e58800db062858ce9f rdf:first sg:person.016424110335.47
121 rdf:rest rdf:nil
122 N3705f9e9817e4d1f8d62360136fe1954 rdf:first sg:person.012640625735.37
123 rdf:rest N613417598c494efa90f485690d7d9231
124 N613417598c494efa90f485690d7d9231 rdf:first sg:person.014306534653.00
125 rdf:rest N0469c22dd20b4b1e9d0979a70a97b8b4
126 N7354cf7a5aaf4b92a7a86926f76fe68e schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
127 rdf:type schema:Organization
128 Nb9af0e3a16924efdae28d0e5de54bfd7 schema:name doi
129 schema:value 10.1007/s11661-013-1977-3
130 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
131 Nc6351a88af0e4d9d9d6071b0ce718bd8 schema:name dimensions_id
132 schema:value pub.1052871562
133 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
134 Nf9ebd1bd3f8f4c8ea385698e999b7e17 schema:issueNumber 1
135 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
136 anzsrc-for:09 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
137 schema:name Engineering
138 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
139 anzsrc-for:0912 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
140 schema:name Materials Engineering
141 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
142 sg:journal.1136292 schema:issn 1073-5623
143 1543-1940
144 schema:name Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A
145 schema:publisher Springer Nature
146 rdf:type schema:Periodical
147 sg:person.01022526340.57 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.254549.b
148 schema:familyName Mishra
149 schema:givenName B.
150 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01022526340.57
151 rdf:type schema:Person
152 sg:person.012640625735.37 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.440667.7
153 schema:familyName Kundu
154 schema:givenName S.
155 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.012640625735.37
156 rdf:type schema:Person
157 sg:person.014306534653.00 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.440667.7
158 schema:familyName Sam
159 schema:givenName S.
160 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.014306534653.00
161 rdf:type schema:Person
162 sg:person.016424110335.47 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.440667.7
163 schema:familyName Chatterjee
164 schema:givenName S.
165 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.016424110335.47
166 rdf:type schema:Person
167 sg:pub.10.1007/bf02586140 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006354557
168 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02586140
169 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
170 sg:pub.10.1007/s00170-008-1493-6 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013735740
171 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-008-1493-6
172 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
173 sg:pub.10.1007/s10853-005-1629-0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003300532
174 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-005-1629-0
175 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
176 sg:pub.10.1007/s10853-007-1935-9 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009124658
177 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-007-1935-9
178 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
179 sg:pub.10.1007/s11661-007-9457-2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011372091
180 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11661-007-9457-2
181 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
182 grid-institutes:grid.254549.b schema:alternateName Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St, 80401, Golden, CO, USA
183 schema:name Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St, 80401, Golden, CO, USA
184 rdf:type schema:Organization
185 grid-institutes:grid.440667.7 schema:alternateName Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, 711103, Howrah, West Bengal, India
186 schema:name Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, 711103, Howrah, West Bengal, India
187 rdf:type schema:Organization
 




Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


...