Interfacial criterion of spontaneous and forced engulfment of reinforcing particles by an advancing solid/liquid interface View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2001-04

AUTHORS

G. Kaptay

ABSTRACT

The sign of the interfacial force acting between a ceramic particle and a solidification front through the thin layer of a liquid metal is determined by the sign of the quantity Δσcls. A new, generally valid equation has been developed for this parameter: Δσcls = 2σcs− σcl− σsl(where σcs, σcl, and σslare the interfacial energies in the ceramic/solid metal, in the ceramic/liquid metal, and in the solid metal/liquid metal systems, respectively). The interfacial force is attractive, i.e., spontaneous engulfment of reinforcing particles by the front is expected, if Δσcls < 0. A new estimation method has also been developed for the quantity σcs. Combining this equation with the new equation for Δσcls, the approximated expressions with easily available parameters for the parameter Δσcls have been obtained for normal metals (Δσcls = σcv− σlv· (0.08 + 1.22 · cos Θclv)) and for Si and Ge (Δσcls = σcv− σlv· (0.57 + 1.66 · cos Θclv), where σcvand σlvare the surface energy of the ceramic and the surface tension of the liquid metal, respectively, while Θclv is the contact angle of the liquid metal on the ceramics). Calculations performed with these equations are in good qualitative agreement with all known pushing/engulfment experiments for metal/ceramic systems. Particularly, it has been theoretically predicted that, while in the majority of normal metal/ceramic and Ge/ceramic systems pushing (and, at higher solidification rates, forced engulfment) is expected, primary Si crystals (crystallizing from hypereutectic Al-Si and other alloys) will spontaneously engulf the majority of ceramic phases. The so-called “pushing/spontaneous engulfment” (PSE) diagrams have been constructed to help make a quick judgement as to whether spontaneous engulfment or pushing is expected in a given metalceramic system. For systems with Δσcls > 0, a new equation (similar to that derived earlier by Chernov et al.) has been derived to estimate the critical velocity of the pushing-engulfment transition (PET). Calculations with this equation show excellent quantitative agreement with the critical interface velocity of the PET in the Al/ZrO2 (250 µm) system, measured recently under microgravity conditions by Stefanescu et al. More... »

PAGES

993-1005

References to SciGraph publications

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  • 1997-03. On the transition from pushing to engulfment during directional solidification of the particle-reinforced aluminum-based metal-matrix composite 2014 + 10 Vol Pct Al2O3 in METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS A
  • 1988-11-01. Behavior of ceramic particles at the solid- liquid metal interface in metal matrix composites in METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS A
  • 1998-06. Particle engulfment and pushing by solidifying interfaces: Part II. Microgravity experiments and theoretical analysis in METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS A
  • 2000-10. A dynamic model for the interaction between a solid particle and an advancing solid/liquid interface in METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS A
  • 1998-06. Particle engulfment and pushing by solidifying interfaces: Part 1. Ground experiments in METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS A
  • 1999-07. Discussion of “particle engulfment and pushing by solidifying interfaces: Part II. Microgravity experiments and theoretical analysis” in METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS A
  • 1998-04. Reinforced cast metals: Part I Solidification microstructure in JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE
  • 2000-06. Authors’ reply in METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS A
  • 1987-01. Wettability of SiC by aluminium and Al-Si alloys in JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE
  • 1997-10. Dynamics of solid/liquid interface shape evolution near an insoluble particle—An X-ray transmission microscopy investigation in METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS A
  • 2000-06. Further discussion of “Particle engulfment and pushing by solidifying interfaces: Part II. microgravity experiments and theoretical analysis in METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS A
  • 1990-01. The influence of buoyant forces and volume fraction of particles on the particle pushing/entrapment transition during directional solidification of Al/SiC and Al/graphite composites in METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS A
  • 1993-01. The engulfment of foreign particles by a freezing interface in JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE
  • 1994-10. Evolution of microstructure and local thermal conditions during directional solidification of A356-SiC particle composites in JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE
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