Is the Urban Child Health Advantage Declining in Malawi?: Evidence from Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2019-02

AUTHORS

Edgar Arnold Lungu, Regien Biesma, Maureen Chirwa, Catherine Darker

ABSTRACT

In many developing countries including Malawi, health indicators are on average better in urban than in rural areas. This phenomenon has largely prompted Governments to prioritize rural areas in programs to improve access to health services. However, considerable evidence has emerged that some population groups in urban areas may be facing worse health than rural areas and that the urban advantage may be waning in some contexts. We used a descriptive study undertaking a comparative analysis of 13 child health indicators between urban and rural areas using seven data points provided by nationally representative population based surveys-the Malawi Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys. Rate differences between urban and rural values for selected child health indicators were calculated to denote whether urban-rural differentials showed a trend of declining urban advantage in Malawi. The results show that all forms of child mortality have significantly declined between 1992 and 2015/2016 reflecting successes in child health interventions. Rural-urban comparisons, using rate differences, largely indicate a picture of the narrowing gap between urban and rural areas albeit the extent and pattern vary among child health indicators. Of the 13 child health indicators, eight (neonatal mortality, infant mortality, under-five mortality rates, stunting rate, proportion of children treated for diarrhea and fever, proportion of children sleeping under insecticide-treated nets, and children fully immunized at 12 months) show clear patterns of a declining urban advantage particularly up to 2014. However, U-5MR shows reversal to a significant urban advantage in 2015/2016, and slight increases in urban advantage are noted for infant mortality rate, underweight, full childhood immunization, and stunting rate in 2015/2016. Our findings suggest the need to rethink the policy viewpoint of a disadvantaged rural and much better-off urban in child health programming. Efforts should be dedicated towards addressing determinants of child health in both urban and rural areas. More... »

PAGES

131-143

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s11524-018-0270-6

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11524-018-0270-6

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1104347571

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29858978


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