The error in stream sediment phosphorus fractionation and sorption properties effected by drying pretreatments View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

2019-03

AUTHORS

Zachary P. Simpson, Richard W. McDowell, Leo M. Condron

ABSTRACT

Stream sediment can control phosphorus (P) in the water column at baseflow. Two common laboratory analyses of sediment P are the equilibrium phosphate concentration at net zero sorption (EPC0) and P fractionation. Good sample handling ensures representative results, but oftentimes, studies rely on air-dried or freeze-dried samples, which alters sediment biogeochemistry. How and to what extent this influences EPC0 and P fractionation remains unclear. We therefore examine pretreatment effects on sediment EPC0 and P fractionation. We collected fine sediments (< 2 mm) from streams in the Tukituki River and Reporoa Basins in New Zealand (n = 31 sediments). Subsamples were then either kept fresh, frozen then lyophilized (freeze-dried), or dried at 40 °C for 2 weeks (air-dried). Measurements of EPC0 and P fractionation were made in triplicate. The sequential P fractionation scheme determined five different P pools: NH4Cl (labile P), NaOH reactive P (RP; metal oxide-bound P) and unreactive P (URP; organic P), HCl (Ca-mineral P), and residual P. Along with statistical comparisons between fresh results and the two pre-treatments, we explored correlations between pre-treatment effects and sediment physicochemical characteristics. The sediments had generally low EPC0 (majority < 0.020 mg P L−1), and uncertainty in EPC0 increased with concentration magnitude. While there were sediment-specific changes in EPC0 with pre-treatment, there was no consistent bias caused by pre-treatment. However, the differences between the fresh and air-dried sediment EPC0 were larger and more variable than between fresh and freeze-dried sediment. For P fractionation, the Tukituki sediments were enriched in HCl-P, while Reporoa sediments had more NaOH-RP and NaOH-URP. Despite large sediment-specific changes, the overall effects of freeze- and air-drying sediment were increased NH4Cl-P (estimated average effect, θ̂ = + 0.63 and + 3.7 mg P kg−1), no significant changes for NaOH-RP, contrasting changes in NaOH-URP (− 3.4 and + 3.3 mg P kg−1), and decreased HCl-P (− 40 and − 33 mg P kg−1). We found that drying sediment significantly influenced EPC0 and P fractions (especially the NH4Cl-P fraction). Air-drying was particularly error-prone and should be avoided. The use of freeze-drying to preserve samples for later analyses and improve ease of handling may be used with appropriate consideration of the research objectives and the error introduced by freeze-drying. However, we recommend using fresh sediments for analyses whenever possible, as they best represent natural conditions. More... »

PAGES

1587-1597

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    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s11368-018-2180-3

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11368-018-2180-3

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    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1107880807


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