Effect of salinity on zinc toxicity (ZnCl2 and ZnO nanomaterials) in the mosquitofish (Gambusia sexradiata) View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

2020-04-20

AUTHORS

Alejandra Pérez-López, Gabriel Núñez-Nogueira, Carlos Alfonso Álvarez-González, Susana De la Rosa-García, Melina Uribe-López, Patricia Quintana, Emyr Saúl Peña-Marín

ABSTRACT

Zn is an essential trace metal in living beings. However, excessive concentrations can cause toxic effects even in the aquatic biota. Zn is widely used in different industrial sectors, which has increased its presence in aquatic environments. To assess the acute toxicity of Zn, bioassays were performed with the fish Gambusia sexradiata for a 96-h exposure using ZnCl2 (0 and 15 salinity) and ZnO nanomaterials (0 salinity). The mean lethal concentrations (LC50–96 h) for ZnCl2 were 25.36 (19.64–32.76) and 177.91 (129.39–244.63) mg Zn L−1 to 0 and 15 salinity, respectively. The increased concentration of ZnCl2 showed a dose-response relationship; similarly, the increase in salinity significantly reduces the toxicity of Zn. Characterisation of ZnO nanomaterials was carried out by FTIR, DRX, SEM, DLS and zeta potential. The FTIR spectra showed the characteristic band of Zn-O vibration at 364 cm−1, while DRX presents the hexagonal wurtzite structure with an average crystallite size of 40 nm. SEM micrographs reveal rod-like shapes with lengths and diameters of 40–350 nm and 90 nm, respectively. Agglomerates of 423 nm in water suspension were obtained by DLS and zeta potential of + 14.4 mV. Under these conditions, no mortality was observed due to the rapid flocculation/precipitation of ZnO nanomaterials, which involved brief interaction periods of Zn in the water column with the fish. Gambusia sexradiata is affected by increased Zn concentrations in hard water conditions, and salinity changes modified Zn toxicity, placing it as a suitable model for toxicity tests for this type of particles. More... »

PAGES

22441-22450

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s11356-020-08851-9

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-08851-9

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1126835526

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32314288


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51 characterisation
52 characteristic bands
53 column
54 concentration
55 concentration of ZnCl2
56 conditions
57 crystallite size
58 diameter
59 different industrial sectors
60 dose-response relationship
61 effect
62 effect of salinity
63 environment
64 essential trace metals
65 excessive concentration
66 exposure
67 fish
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70 hexagonal wurtzite structure
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72 industrial sectors
73 interaction period
74 length
75 lethal concentration
76 mean lethal concentration
77 metals
78 micrographs
79 model
80 mortality
81 mosquitofish
82 nanomaterials
83 particles
84 period
85 potential
86 precipitation
87 presence
88 relationship
89 rod-like shape
90 salinity
91 salinity changes
92 sector
93 shape
94 size
95 spectra
96 structure
97 suitable model
98 suspension
99 test
100 toxic effects
101 toxicity
102 toxicity of Zn
103 toxicity tests
104 trace metals
105 types
106 types of particles
107 vibration
108 water column
109 water conditions
110 water suspension
111 wurtzite structure
112 zeta potential
113 zinc toxicity
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