Sulfur deposition still contributes to forest soil acidification in the Pearl River Delta, South China, despite the control of sulfur ... View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2019-03-20

AUTHORS

Juan Huang, Kaijun Zhou, Wei Zhang, Juxiu Liu, Xiang Ding, Xi’an Cai, Jiangming Mo

ABSTRACT

Sulfur dioxide emissions have been regulated at a global scale; sulfur (S) deposition no longer contributes to soil acidification instead of an alleviation effect in temperate regions; however, it remains unclear whether S deposition still contributes to soil acidification in the tropics. The Pearl River Delta (PRD), South China, has been suffering serious soil acidification, but the contribution of S deposition was ignored because of the regulation of S emission since 2001. Here, we chose the evergreen broadleaf forests, which are the typical forest type at the regional scale in PRD to examine the contribution of S deposition and its characteristics in this acidification, based on an established urban-rural gradient in the range of 260 km. A substantial acidification was evidenced by the significant decline of soil pH from rural to urban sites, with mean pH values decreased by more than 0.60 U through the whole 40-cm depths. However, there was no significant difference in soil pH from 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, and to 20-40 cm at each site (P > 0.05). Acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) showed a similar trend to soil pH, with a significant decline along the urbanization gradient and no significant effect of soil depths. Soil sulfate (SO42-), as the most abundant species in ANC, contributed greatly to soil acidification for the whole 40-cm depth, as shown by the significant positive relationships between it with soil pH and base cations. Soils also exhibited the depletion of base cations with low base saturation (< 20%) and the release of Al and Fe. Our research demonstrated that the severe soil acidification in the PRD region has extended to the subsoil level (40-cm depth), and S deposition is still an important driver to this acidification. Therefore, both recovering the acidified soils and controlling the acidifying pollutants, especially S, are particularly difficult in southern China. More... »

PAGES

1-12

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s11356-019-04831-w

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-04831-w

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1112880885

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30891701


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43 schema:description Sulfur dioxide emissions have been regulated at a global scale; sulfur (S) deposition no longer contributes to soil acidification instead of an alleviation effect in temperate regions; however, it remains unclear whether S deposition still contributes to soil acidification in the tropics. The Pearl River Delta (PRD), South China, has been suffering serious soil acidification, but the contribution of S deposition was ignored because of the regulation of S emission since 2001. Here, we chose the evergreen broadleaf forests, which are the typical forest type at the regional scale in PRD to examine the contribution of S deposition and its characteristics in this acidification, based on an established urban-rural gradient in the range of 260 km. A substantial acidification was evidenced by the significant decline of soil pH from rural to urban sites, with mean pH values decreased by more than 0.60 U through the whole 40-cm depths. However, there was no significant difference in soil pH from 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, and to 20-40 cm at each site (P &gt; 0.05). Acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) showed a similar trend to soil pH, with a significant decline along the urbanization gradient and no significant effect of soil depths. Soil sulfate (SO<sub>4</sub><sup>2-</sup>), as the most abundant species in ANC, contributed greatly to soil acidification for the whole 40-cm depth, as shown by the significant positive relationships between it with soil pH and base cations. Soils also exhibited the depletion of base cations with low base saturation (&lt; 20%) and the release of Al and Fe. Our research demonstrated that the severe soil acidification in the PRD region has extended to the subsoil level (40-cm depth), and S deposition is still an important driver to this acidification. Therefore, both recovering the acidified soils and controlling the acidifying pollutants, especially S, are particularly difficult in southern China.
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