Occurrence of 1,1′-dimethyl-4,4′-bipyridinium (Paraquat) in irrigated soil of the Lake Chad Basin, Niger View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

2014-09

AUTHORS

Marc Crampon, Yoann Copard, Guillaume Favreau, Julie Raux, Nadine Merlet-Machour, Mathieu Le Coz, Maïmouna Ibrahim, Valérie Peulon-Agasse, Florence Portet-Koltalo

ABSTRACT

Increased use of agrochemical products to improve yields for irrigated crops in sub-Saharan Africa has been accompanied by a significant increase in the risk of environmental contamination. Detailed examples of the fate of pesticides after initial spreading on crop fields are scarce in tropical regions, where safe practices and related health risks are poorly understood by smallholder farmers. In the semi-arid environment of the Lake Chad Basin, SE Niger, both intrinsic properties of pesticides and extrinsic factors such as soil and climate helped to characterize processes leading to an accumulation of pesticides in soils. Analysis by HPLC-UV of a 6 m deep soil profile showed the presence of Paraquat at concentrations from 953 ± 102 μg kg(-1) to 3083 ± 175 μg kg(-1) at depths between 0.80 and 2.75 m below the land surface. Soil analysis revealed that up to approximately 15 % of the total soil matrix consists of smectites, a clay mineral capable of retaining cationic pesticides such as Paraquat, and a very low content of organic matter (<0.15 wt.% TOC). Paraquat could be stored and not bioavailable in a clayey barrier at approximately 2-m depth and therefore does not represent an immediate risk for populations or environment in this form. However, if the Paraquat application rate remains constant, the clayey barrier could reach a saturation limit within 150-200 years and 180-220 years if we consider a DT50 in soil of ~1,000 days (FAO). Consequently, it could lead to a deeper infiltration and so a pollution of groundwater. Such a scenario can represent a health risk for drinking water and for the Lake Chad, which is a major resource for this densely populated region of semi-arid Africa. Further analyses should focus on deeper layers and groundwater Paraquat contents to validate or invalidate the hypothesis of storage in this clay-rich layer. More... »

PAGES

10601-10613

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  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s11356-014-3064-8

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-014-3064-8

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002426410

    PUBMED

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24878556


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