High genetic diversity and distinct origin of recently fragmented Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) populations along the Carpathians and the ... View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2017-03-27

AUTHORS

Endre Gy Tóth, Giovanni G. Vendramin, Francesca Bagnoli, Klára Cseke, Mária Höhn

ABSTRACT

Historical evolutionary events highly affect the modern-day genetic structure of natural populations. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), as a dominant tree species of the Eurasian taiga communities following the glacial cycles of the Pleistocene, has survived in small, scattered populations at the range limits of its south-eastern European distribution. In this study, we examined genetic relationships, genetic divergence and demographic history of peripheral populations from central-eastern Europe, the Carpathian Mountains and the Pannonian Basin. Four hundred twenty-one individuals from 20 populations were sampled and characterized with both nuclear and chloroplast simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Standard population genetic indices, the degree of genetic differentiation and spatial genetic structure were analysed. Our results revealed that peripheral Scots pine populations retained high genetic diversity despite the recently ongoing fragmentation and isolation of the persisting relict populations. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed 7% among-population genetic differentiation, and there was no isolation by distance among the island-like occurrences. Genetic discontinuities with strong barriers (99–100% bootstrap support) were identified in the Carpathians. Based on both marker types, populations of the Western Carpathians were delimited from those inhabiting the Eastern Carpathians, and two main genetic lineages were traced that most probably originate from two main refugia. One refugium presumably existed in the region of the Eastern Alps with the Hungarian Plain, while the other was probably found in the Eastern Carpathians. These findings are supported by recent palynological records. The strongest genetic structure was revealed within the Romanian Carpathians on the basis of both marker types. With only some exceptions, no signs of recent bottlenecks or inbreeding were detected. However, Carpathian natural populations of Scots pine are highly fragmented and have a small census size, though they have not yet been affected by genetic erosion induced by isolation. More... »

PAGES

47

References to SciGraph publications

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  • 2011-09-09. Novel polymorphic nuclear microsatellite markers for Pinus sylvestris L. in CONSERVATION GENETICS RESOURCES
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  • 1998-08. Distribution of genetic diversity in Pinus pinaster Ait. as revealed by chloroplast microsatellites in THEORETICAL AND APPLIED GENETICS
  • 2005-03-11. Isolation by distance, web service in BMC GENETICS
  • 2007-07-13. Bayesian spatial modeling of genetic population structure in COMPUTATIONAL STATISTICS
  • 2012-01-22. Genetic variation and divergence in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) within its natural range in Italy in EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF FOREST RESEARCH
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    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s11295-017-1137-9

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    27 schema:description Historical evolutionary events highly affect the modern-day genetic structure of natural populations. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), as a dominant tree species of the Eurasian taiga communities following the glacial cycles of the Pleistocene, has survived in small, scattered populations at the range limits of its south-eastern European distribution. In this study, we examined genetic relationships, genetic divergence and demographic history of peripheral populations from central-eastern Europe, the Carpathian Mountains and the Pannonian Basin. Four hundred twenty-one individuals from 20 populations were sampled and characterized with both nuclear and chloroplast simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Standard population genetic indices, the degree of genetic differentiation and spatial genetic structure were analysed. Our results revealed that peripheral Scots pine populations retained high genetic diversity despite the recently ongoing fragmentation and isolation of the persisting relict populations. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed 7% among-population genetic differentiation, and there was no isolation by distance among the island-like occurrences. Genetic discontinuities with strong barriers (99–100% bootstrap support) were identified in the Carpathians. Based on both marker types, populations of the Western Carpathians were delimited from those inhabiting the Eastern Carpathians, and two main genetic lineages were traced that most probably originate from two main refugia. One refugium presumably existed in the region of the Eastern Alps with the Hungarian Plain, while the other was probably found in the Eastern Carpathians. These findings are supported by recent palynological records. The strongest genetic structure was revealed within the Romanian Carpathians on the basis of both marker types. With only some exceptions, no signs of recent bottlenecks or inbreeding were detected. However, Carpathian natural populations of Scots pine are highly fragmented and have a small census size, though they have not yet been affected by genetic erosion induced by isolation.
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    34 schema:keywords Alps
    35 Carpathian Mountains
    36 Carpathian natural populations
    37 Carpathians
    38 Central-Eastern Europe
    39 Eastern Alps
    40 Eastern Carpathians
    41 Eurasian taiga communities
    42 Europe
    43 European distribution
    44 Historical evolutionary events
    45 Hungarian Plain
    46 Mountains
    47 Pannonian Basin
    48 Plain
    49 Pleistocene
    50 Romanian Carpathians
    51 Scots
    52 Scots pine
    53 Scots pine population
    54 Standard population genetic indices
    55 Western Carpathians
    56 analysis
    57 barriers
    58 basin
    59 basis
    60 bottleneck
    61 census size
    62 chloroplast simple sequence repeat markers
    63 community
    64 cycle
    65 degree
    66 demographic history
    67 differentiation
    68 discontinuities
    69 distance
    70 distinct origins
    71 distribution
    72 divergence
    73 diversity
    74 dominant tree species
    75 erosion
    76 events
    77 evolutionary events
    78 exception
    79 findings
    80 fragmentation
    81 genetic differentiation
    82 genetic discontinuity
    83 genetic divergence
    84 genetic diversity
    85 genetic erosion
    86 genetic indices
    87 genetic lineages
    88 genetic relationships
    89 genetic structure
    90 glacial cycles
    91 high genetic diversity
    92 history
    93 index
    94 individuals
    95 inhabiting
    96 island-like occurrences
    97 isolation
    98 limit
    99 lineages
    100 main genetic lineages
    101 main refugia
    102 marker types
    103 markers
    104 modern-day genetic structure
    105 molecular variance
    106 natural populations
    107 occurrence
    108 ongoing fragmentation
    109 origin
    110 palynological record
    111 peripheral Scots
    112 peripheral populations
    113 pine
    114 pine populations
    115 population
    116 population genetic differentiation
    117 population genetic indices
    118 range limits
    119 recent bottleneck
    120 recent palynological records
    121 records
    122 refugia
    123 region
    124 relationship
    125 relict populations
    126 repeat (SSR) markers
    127 results
    128 sequence repeat (SSR) markers
    129 signs
    130 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers
    131 size
    132 small census size
    133 south-eastern European distribution
    134 spatial genetic structure
    135 species
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    137 strong genetic structure
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    144 schema:name High genetic diversity and distinct origin of recently fragmented Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) populations along the Carpathians and the Pannonian Basin
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