Trace Metal Budgets for Forested Catchments in Europe—Pb, Cd, Hg, Cu and Zn View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2013-03-09

AUTHORS

Lage Bringmark, Lars Lundin, Algirdas Augustaitis, Burkhard Beudert, Helga Dieffenbach-Fries, Thomas Dirnböck, Maria-Theresia Grabner, Mike Hutchins, Pavel Kram, Iraida Lyulko, Tuija Ruoho-Airola, Milan Vana

ABSTRACT

Input/output budgets for cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) in the years 1997–2011 were monitored and determined for 14 small forest-covered catchments across Europe as part of the Integrated Monitoring program on the effects of long-range pollutants on ecosystems. Metal inputs were considered to derive from bulk deposition, throughfall and litterfall. Outputs were estimated from run-off values. Litterfall plus throughfall was taken as a measure of the total deposition of Pb and Hg (wet + dry) on the basis of evidence suggesting that, for these metals, internal circulation is negligible. The same is not true for Cd. Excluding a few sites with high discharge, between 74 and 94 % of the input Pb was retained within the catchments; significant Cd retention was also observed. High losses of Pb (>1.4 mg m−2 year−1) and Cd (>0.15 mg m−2 year−1) were observed in two mountainous Central European sites with high water discharge. All other sites had outputs below or equal to 0.36 and 0.06 mg m−2 year−1, respectively, for the two metals. Almost complete retention of Hg, 86–99 % of input, was reported in the Swedish sites. These high levels of metal retention were maintained even in the face of recent dramatic reductions in pollutant loads. More... »

PAGES

1502

References to SciGraph publications

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    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s11270-013-1502-8

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    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11270-013-1502-8

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    43 bulk deposition
    44 cadmium
    45 catchment
    46 central European sites
    47 circulation
    48 complete retention
    49 deposition
    50 discharge
    51 dramatic reduction
    52 ecosystems
    53 effect
    54 evidence
    55 face
    56 forest-covered catchments
    57 high discharge
    58 high levels
    59 high losses
    60 high water discharge
    61 input
    62 input Pb
    63 input/output budgets
    64 internal circulation
    65 levels
    66 litterfall
    67 load
    68 long-range pollutants
    69 loss
    70 measures
    71 mercury
    72 metal budget
    73 metal inputs
    74 metal retention
    75 metals
    76 monitoring program
    77 mountainous Central European sites
    78 output
    79 output budgets
    80 part
    81 pollutant loads
    82 pollutants
    83 program
    84 recent dramatic reductions
    85 reduction
    86 retention
    87 significant Cd retention
    88 sites
    89 small forest-covered catchments
    90 throughfall
    91 total deposition
    92 trace metal budgets
    93 values
    94 water discharge
    95 years 1997
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