Cometary Comae-Surface Links View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2020-11-06

AUTHORS

Raphael Marschall, Yuri Skorov, Vladimir Zakharov, Ladislav Rezac, Selina-Barbara Gerig, Chariton Christou, S. Kokou Dadzie, Alessandra Migliorini, Giovanna Rinaldi, Jessica Agarwal, Jean-Baptiste Vincent, David Kappel

ABSTRACT

A comet is a highly dynamic object, undergoing a permanent state of change. These changes have to be carefully classified and considered according to their intrinsic temporal and spatial scales. The Rosetta mission has, through its contiguous in-situ and remote sensing coverage of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (hereafter 67P) over the time span of August 2014 to September 2016, monitored the emergence, culmination, and winding down of the gas and dust comae. This provided an unprecedented data set and has spurred a large effort to connect in-situ and remote sensing measurements to the surface. In this review, we address our current understanding of cometary activity and the challenges involved when linking comae data to the surface. We give the current state of research by describing what we know about the physical processes involved from the surface to a few tens of kilometres above it with respect to the gas and dust emission from cometary nuclei. Further, we describe how complex multidimensional cometary gas and dust models have developed from the Halley encounter of 1986 to today. This includes the study of inhomogeneous outgassing and determination of the gas and dust production rates. Additionally, the different approaches used and results obtained to link coma data to the surface will be discussed. We discuss forward and inversion models and we describe the limitations of the respective approaches. The current literature suggests that there does not seem to be a single uniform process behind cometary activity. Rather, activity seems to be the consequence of a variety of erosion processes, including the sublimation of both water ice and more volatile material, but possibly also more exotic processes such as fracture and cliff erosion under thermal and mechanical stress, sub-surface heat storage, and a complex interplay of these processes. Seasons and the nucleus shape are key factors for the distribution and temporal evolution of activity and imply that the heliocentric evolution of activity can be highly individual for every comet, and generalisations can be misleading. More... »

PAGES

130

References to SciGraph publications

  • 1988-03. Intensity profiles of dust near extended sources on comet Halley in NATURE
  • 1995. Principles of Heat Transfer in Porous Media in NONE
  • 2016-01-13. Exposed water ice on the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko in NATURE
  • 2019-05-02. Local Manifestations of Cometary Activity in SPACE SCIENCE REVIEWS
  • 2015-09-24. The diurnal cycle of water ice on comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko in NATURE
  • 2019-04-22. The changing temperature of the nucleus of comet 67P induced by morphological and seasonal effects in NATURE ASTRONOMY
  • 2019-06-12. Surface Morphology of Comets and Associated Evolutionary Processes: A Review of Rosetta’s Observations of 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko in SPACE SCIENCE REVIEWS
  • 2020-04-08. Dust-to-Gas and Refractory-to-Ice Mass Ratios of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko from Rosetta Observations in SPACE SCIENCE REVIEWS
  • 2016-08-31. Aggregate dust particles at comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko in NATURE
  • 2008-01-24. Comet Knudsen Layers in SPACE SCIENCE REVIEWS
  • 2020-01-29. Cometary Nuclei—From Giotto to Rosetta in SPACE SCIENCE REVIEWS
  • 2019-05-02. The Thermal, Mechanical, Structural, and Dielectric Properties of Cometary Nuclei After Rosetta in SPACE SCIENCE REVIEWS
  • 2010-01. Comet dust as a mixture of aggregates and solid particles: Model consistent with ground-based and space-mission results in EARTH, PLANETS AND SPACE
  • 2002-06. Challenging a Paradigm: Do We Need Active and Inactive Areas to Account for Near-Nuclear Jet Activity? in EARTH, MOON, AND PLANETS
  • 2004. Physical Model of the Coma of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in THE NEW ROSETTA TARGETS
  • 2018-05-21. Coma morphology of comet 67P controlled by insolation over irregular nucleus in NATURE ASTRONOMY
  • 2006-11-10. Alice: The rosetta Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph in SPACE SCIENCE REVIEWS
  • 2007-02-22. Virtis: An Imaging Spectrometer for the Rosetta Mission in SPACE SCIENCE REVIEWS
  • 2015-01-26. Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko sheds dust coat accumulated over the past four years in NATURE
  • 2018-03-28. Cometary Dust in SPACE SCIENCE REVIEWS
  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s11214-020-00744-0

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11214-020-00744-0

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1132407973

    PUBMED

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/33184519


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