Deep Impact: Working Properties for the Target Nucleus – Comet 9P/Tempel 1 View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2005-03

AUTHORS

Michael J. S. Belton, Karen J. Meech, Michael F. A’Hearn, Olivier Groussin, Lucy Mcfadden, Carey Lisse, Yanga R. Fernández, Jana PittichovÁ, Henry Hsieh, Jochen Kissel, Kenneth Klaasen, Philippe Lamy, Dina Prialnik, Jessica Sunshine, Peter Thomas, Imre Toth

ABSTRACT

In 1998, Comet 9P/Tempel 1 was chosen as the target of the Deep Impact mission (A’Hearn, M. F., Belton, M. J. S., and Delamere, A., Space Sci. Rev., 2005) even though very little was known about its physical properties. Efforts were immediately begun to improve this situation by the Deep Impact Science Team leading to the founding of a worldwide observing campaign (Meech et al., Space Sci. Rev., 2005a). This campaign has already produced a great deal of information on the global properties of the comet’s nucleus (summarized in Table I) that is vital to the planning and the assessment of the chances of success at the impact and encounter. Since the mission was begun the successful encounters of the Deep Space 1 spacecraft at Comet 19P/Borrelly and the Stardust spacecraft at Comet 81P/Wild 2 have occurred yielding new information on the state of the nuclei of these two comets. This information, together with earlier results on the nucleus of comet 1P/Halley from the European Space Agency’s Giotto, the Soviet Vega mission, and various ground-based observational and theoretical studies, is used as a basis for conjectures on the morphological, geological, mechanical, and compositional properties of the surface and subsurface that Deep Impact may find at 9P/Tempel 1. We adopt the following working values (circa December 2004) for the nucleus parameters of prime importance to Deep Impact as follows: mean effective radius = 3.25± 0.2 km, shape – irregular triaxial ellipsoid with a/b = 3.2± 0.4 and overall dimensions of ∼14.4 × 4.4 × 4.4 km, principal axis rotation with period = 41.85± 0.1 hr, pole directions (RA, Dec, J2000) = 46± 10, 73± 10 deg (Pole 1) or 287± 14, 16.5± 10 deg (Pole 2) (the two poles are photometrically, but not geometrically, equivalent), Kron-Cousins (V-R) color = 0.56± 0.02, V-band geometric albedo = 0.04± 0.01, R-band geometric albedo = 0.05± 0.01, R-band H(1,1,0) = 14.441± 0.067, and mass ∼7×1013 kg assuming a bulk density of 500 kg m−3. As these are working values, {i.e.}, based on preliminary analyses, it is expected that adjustments to their values may be made before encounter as improved estimates become available through further analysis of the large database being made available by the Deep Impact observing campaign. Given the parameters listed above the impact will occur in an environment where the local gravity is estimated at 0.027–0.04 cm s−2 and the escape velocity between 1.4 and 2 m s−1. For both of the rotation poles found here, the Deep Impact spacecraft on approach to encounter will find the rotation axis close to the plane of the sky (aspect angles 82.2 and 69.7 deg. for pole 1 and 2, respectively). However, until the rotation period estimate is substantially improved, it will remain uncertain whether the impactor will collide with the broadside or the ends of the nucleus. More... »

PAGES

137-160

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s11214-005-3389-1

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11214-005-3389-1

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050471556


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12 schema:description In 1998, Comet 9P/Tempel 1 was chosen as the target of the Deep Impact mission (A’Hearn, M. F., Belton, M. J. S., and Delamere, A., Space Sci. Rev., 2005) even though very little was known about its physical properties. Efforts were immediately begun to improve this situation by the Deep Impact Science Team leading to the founding of a worldwide observing campaign (Meech et al., Space Sci. Rev., 2005a). This campaign has already produced a great deal of information on the global properties of the comet’s nucleus (summarized in Table I) that is vital to the planning and the assessment of the chances of success at the impact and encounter. Since the mission was begun the successful encounters of the Deep Space 1 spacecraft at Comet 19P/Borrelly and the Stardust spacecraft at Comet 81P/Wild 2 have occurred yielding new information on the state of the nuclei of these two comets. This information, together with earlier results on the nucleus of comet 1P/Halley from the European Space Agency’s Giotto, the Soviet Vega mission, and various ground-based observational and theoretical studies, is used as a basis for conjectures on the morphological, geological, mechanical, and compositional properties of the surface and subsurface that Deep Impact may find at 9P/Tempel 1. We adopt the following working values (circa December 2004) for the nucleus parameters of prime importance to Deep Impact as follows: mean effective radius = 3.25± 0.2 km, shape – irregular triaxial ellipsoid with a/b = 3.2± 0.4 and overall dimensions of ∼14.4 × 4.4 × 4.4 km, principal axis rotation with period = 41.85± 0.1 hr, pole directions (RA, Dec, J2000) = 46± 10, 73± 10 deg (Pole 1) or 287± 14, 16.5± 10 deg (Pole 2) (the two poles are photometrically, but not geometrically, equivalent), Kron-Cousins (V-R) color = 0.56± 0.02, V-band geometric albedo = 0.04± 0.01, R-band geometric albedo = 0.05± 0.01, R-band H(1,1,0) = 14.441± 0.067, and mass ∼7×1013 kg assuming a bulk density of 500 kg m−3. As these are working values, {i.e.}, based on preliminary analyses, it is expected that adjustments to their values may be made before encounter as improved estimates become available through further analysis of the large database being made available by the Deep Impact observing campaign. Given the parameters listed above the impact will occur in an environment where the local gravity is estimated at 0.027–0.04 cm s−2 and the escape velocity between 1.4 and 2 m s−1. For both of the rotation poles found here, the Deep Impact spacecraft on approach to encounter will find the rotation axis close to the plane of the sky (aspect angles 82.2 and 69.7 deg. for pole 1 and 2, respectively). However, until the rotation period estimate is substantially improved, it will remain uncertain whether the impactor will collide with the broadside or the ends of the nucleus.
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19 Comet 19P/Borrelly
20 Comet 9P/Tempel 1
21 Deep Impact mission
22 Deep Impact spacecraft
23 Deep Space 1 spacecraft
24 Further analysis
25 Giotto
26 Halley
27 Impact mission
28 R band
29 Stardust spacecraft
30 Tempel 1
31 V-band geometric albedo
32 VEGA mission
33 Wild 2
34 adjustment
35 albedo
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39 axis rotation
40 basis
41 broadside
42 bulk density
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46 color
47 comet 1P/Halley
48 comet 81P/Wild 2
49 comet nucleus
50 comets
51 compositional properties
52 conjecture
53 database
54 deal
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56 deg
57 density
58 dimensions
59 direction
60 earlier results
61 effective radius
62 efforts
63 ellipsoids
64 encounters
65 end
66 environment
67 escape velocity
68 estimates
69 founding
70 geometric albedo
71 global properties
72 gravity
73 great deal
74 hr
75 impact
76 impactor
77 importance
78 improved estimates
79 information
80 large database
81 local gravity
82 mission
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84 nucleus
85 nucleus parameters
86 overall dimensions
87 parameters
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90 physical properties
91 plane
92 planning
93 pole direction
94 poles
95 preliminary analysis
96 prime importance
97 principal axis rotation
98 properties
99 radius
100 results
101 rotation
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103 rotation pole
104 science team
105 situation
106 sky
107 spacecraft
108 state
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111 success
112 successful encounter
113 surface
114 target
115 team
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117 triaxial ellipsoid
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