Do the Chinese Astronomical Records Dated AD 776 January 12/13 Describe an Auroral Display or a Lunar Halo? A Critical ... View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

2019-04

AUTHORS

F. Richard Stephenson, David M. Willis, Hisashi Hayakawa, Yusuke Ebihara, Christopher J. Scott, Julia Wilkinson, Matthew N. Wild

ABSTRACT

The enhancement of carbon-14 in tree rings around AD 774/775 has generated wide interest in solar activity at that time. The historical auroral records have been examined critically. Of particular interest was the “white vapour” observed in China on AD 776 January 12/13. Both Usoskin et al. (Astron. Astrophys.55, L3, 2013; U13) and Stephenson (Adv. Space Res.55, 1537, 2015; S15) interpreted this record as an auroral display. Subsequently, Neuhäuser and Neuhäuser (Astron. Nachr.336, 225, 2015; NN15) proposed five “criteria” for the likeliness of aurorae and on this basis rejected an auroral interpretation. Instead, they interpreted it as a lunar halo, and suggested there were no auroral records as a proxy of solar activity in the interval AD 774 – 785. We consider if their “lunar halo hypothesis” and their auroral criteria could be of use in future researches on historical auroral candidates. We first show a counter-example for the lunar halo hypothesis from a parallel record on 1882 November 17, which was seen as a whitish colour, in the southerly direction, and near the Moon. We then consider NN15’s criteria on colour, direction, and sky brightness and investigate other counter-examples from early-modern auroral observations. We also consider the extension of the white vapour in AD 776 according to the distribution of Chinese asterisms, and show that its large extension was inconsistent with the lunar halo hypothesis. Conversely, the streaks of white vapour penetrating the eight Chinese asterisms can be reproduced if we consider auroral-ray structures at altitudes between 97 km and 170 km, along geomagnetic field lines between the L-shells L=1.55 and 1.64. Our investigations show that we should consider candidate auroral records in historical documents not on the basis of the newly suggested a priori criteria by NN15 but based on all the available observational evidence. More... »

PAGES

36

References to SciGraph publications

  • 2015-12. Records of sunspot and aurora during CE 960–1279 in the Chinese chronicle of the Sòng dynasty in EARTH, PLANETS AND SPACE
  • 2009. The Principles of Astronomical Telescope Design in NONE
  • 2018-12. Tree rings reveal globally coherent signature of cosmogenic radiocarbon events in 774 and 993 CE in NATURE COMMUNICATIONS
  • 2015-12. International Geomagnetic Reference Field: the 12th generation in EARTH, PLANETS AND SPACE
  • 2017-12. Atmospheric impacts of the strongest known solar particle storm of 775 AD in SCIENTIFIC REPORTS
  • 2017-01. Historical Auroras in the 990s: Evidence of Great Magnetic Storms in SOLAR PHYSICS
  • 2004-10. The 1859 Solar–Terrestrial Disturbance And the Current Limits of Extreme Space Weather Activity in SOLAR PHYSICS
  • 2018-12. Solar superstorm of AD 774 recorded subannually by Arctic tree rings in NATURE COMMUNICATIONS
  • 1999-12. Simultaneous auroral observations described in the historical records of China, Japan and Korea from ancient times to AD 1700 in ANNALES GEOPHYSICAE
  • 1998-07. The size of the auroral belt during magnetic storms in ANNALES GEOPHYSICAE
  • 1957-01. The Aurora in Middle and Low Latitudes in NATURE
  • 2013-12. Another rapid event in the carbon-14 content of tree rings in NATURE COMMUNICATIONS
  • 2015-05. Mysterious abrupt carbon-14 increase in coral contributed by a comet in SCIENTIFIC REPORTS
  • 2012-06. A signature of cosmic-ray increase in ad 774–775 from tree rings in Japan in NATURE
  • 2017-01. An Optical Atmospheric Phenomenon Observed in 1670 over the City of Astrakhan Was Not a Mid-Latitude Aurora in SOLAR PHYSICS
  • 2015-12. Multiradionuclide evidence for the solar origin of the cosmic-ray events of ᴀᴅ 774/5 and 993/4 in NATURE COMMUNICATIONS
  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s11207-019-1425-7

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11207-019-1425-7

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1113172601


    Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
    Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

    JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

    TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

    [
      {
        "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
        "about": [
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/0201", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Astronomical and Space Sciences", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/02", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Physical Sciences", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }
        ], 
        "author": [
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Durham University", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.8250.f", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Physics, University of Durham, DH1 3LE, Durham, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Stephenson", 
            "givenName": "F. Richard", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "University of Warwick", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.7372.1", 
              "name": [
                "UK Solar System Data Centre, Space Physics and Operations Division, RAL Space, Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot, OX11 0QX, Oxfordshire, UK", 
                "Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, CV4 7AL, Coventry, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Willis", 
            "givenName": "David M.", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Rutherford Appleton Laboratory", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.76978.37", 
              "name": [
                "Graduate School of Letters, Osaka University, 5600043, Toyonaka, Osaka, Japan", 
                "UK Solar System Data Centre, Space Physics and Operations Division, RAL Space, Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot, OX11 0QX, Oxfordshire, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Hayakawa", 
            "givenName": "Hisashi", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Kyoto University", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.258799.8", 
              "name": [
                "Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere, Kyoto University, 6110011, Gokasho, Uji, Japan", 
                "Unit of Synergetic Studies for Space, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-oiwake-cho, 6068306, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, Japan"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Ebihara", 
            "givenName": "Yusuke", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "University of Reading", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.9435.b", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, RG6 6BB, Reading, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Scott", 
            "givenName": "Christopher J.", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "University of Oxford", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.4991.5", 
              "name": [
                "Zooniverse, c/o Astrophysics Department, University of Oxford, OX1 3RH, Oxford, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Wilkinson", 
            "givenName": "Julia", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Rutherford Appleton Laboratory", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.76978.37", 
              "name": [
                "UK Solar System Data Centre, Space Physics and Operations Division, RAL Space, Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot, OX11 0QX, Oxfordshire, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Wild", 
            "givenName": "Matthew N.", 
            "type": "Person"
          }
        ], 
        "citation": [
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature11123", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004171407", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature11123"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1468-4004.2003.45615.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004470074"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1080/14786444708645871", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004855663"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1029/jz061i002p00297-02", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005977674"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1080/14786448308627358", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007146467"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1098/rspa.2016.0404", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007397875"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s11207-005-4980-z", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009216930", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s11207-005-4980-z"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1029/rg013i001p00201", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011077701"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00585-000-0001-6", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011936068", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00585-000-0001-6"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00585-000-0001-6", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011936068", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00585-000-0001-6"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00585-998-0566-z", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012179048", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00585-998-0566-z"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00585-998-0566-z", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012179048", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00585-998-0566-z"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/pasj/psw032", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013616426"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/s40623-015-0228-9", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015525952", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1186/s40623-015-0228-9"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2005.12.021", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017055665"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1477-8696.1959.tb02450.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017570185"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/asna.201512193", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017661281"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jastp.2008.03.012", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019407197"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/ncomms2783", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020147582", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms2783"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s1364-6826(98)00040-6", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020946697"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/2014gl062218", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021267945"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pepi.2011.06.017", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021888914"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1029/2002ja009504", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023136858"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-19-289-2001", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024727585"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-19-289-2001", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024727585"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s11207-016-1035-6", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027283658", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s11207-016-1035-6"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s11207-016-1035-6", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027283658", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s11207-016-1035-6"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s11207-016-1035-6", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027283658", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s11207-016-1035-6"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-4004.2009.50520.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029462853"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-4004.2009.50520.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029462853"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/arcm.12152", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031634058"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s11207-016-1039-2", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031947939", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s11207-016-1039-2"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s11207-016-1039-2", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031947939", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s11207-016-1039-2"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s11207-016-1039-2", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031947939", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s11207-016-1039-2"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/astrog/40.6.6.21", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034246250"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/20.1.15", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035497183"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/asna.201412160", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037349953"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2005.08.053", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038023929"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2000.0569", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038763756"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/b105475", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039502310", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/b105475"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/b105475", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039502310", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/b105475"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2010.02.007", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042066822"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2005.08.054", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042674231"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/20.1.13", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042960154"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/2014gl059874", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045121965"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2014.12.014", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045586895"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.49708235223", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046157123"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/179007a0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046949778", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/179007a0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/srep03728", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049125578", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/srep03728"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2014.11.048", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050029454"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/ncomms9611", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050943888", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms9611"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/s40623-015-0250-y", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051038859", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1186/s40623-015-0250-y"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/s40623-015-0250-y", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051038859", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1186/s40623-015-0250-y"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2005.03.157", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051650180"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2005.03.157", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051650180"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201321080", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1056919934"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1051/swsc/2013053", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1057070998"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1086/141747", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058473038"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/pasj/psw097", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1059969858"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/pasj/psw127", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1059969886"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/pasj/psw128", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1059969887"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.2475/ajs.s2-30.88.79", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1070842542"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.2475/ajs.s2-30.90.339", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1070842559"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/pasj/psw132", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1083934010"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/srep45257", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1084133097", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/srep45257"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/pasj/psx045", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1085538656"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/2017sw001693", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1092149356"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/pasj/psx087", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1092254301"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/aa9661", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1093105213"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1017/cbo9780511525186", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1098708403"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1017/cbo9781139017466", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1098714438"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/2017sw001795", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1100107694"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201832735", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1103911427"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1029/2017sw001789", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1104293970"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aaca40", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1105728879"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/s41467-018-05883-1", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1106310186", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-05883-1"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/s41467-018-05883-1", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1106310186", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-05883-1"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/s41467-018-05883-1", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1106310186", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-05883-1"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/s41467-018-05883-1", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1106310186", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-05883-1"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/s41467-018-06036-0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1106476042", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-06036-0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.17226/12507", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1108734146"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aae47c", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1110551613"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }
        ], 
        "datePublished": "2019-04", 
        "datePublishedReg": "2019-04-01", 
        "description": "The enhancement of carbon-14 in tree rings around AD 774/775 has generated wide interest in solar activity at that time. The historical auroral records have been examined critically. Of particular interest was the \u201cwhite vapour\u201d observed in China on AD 776 January 12/13. Both Usoskin et al. (Astron. Astrophys.55, L3, 2013; U13) and Stephenson (Adv. Space Res.55, 1537, 2015; S15) interpreted this record as an auroral display. Subsequently, Neuh\u00e4user and Neuh\u00e4user (Astron. Nachr.336, 225, 2015; NN15) proposed five \u201ccriteria\u201d for the likeliness of aurorae and on this basis rejected an auroral interpretation. Instead, they interpreted it as a lunar halo, and suggested there were no auroral records as a proxy of solar activity in the interval AD 774 \u2013 785. We consider if their \u201clunar halo hypothesis\u201d and their auroral criteria could be of use in future researches on historical auroral candidates. We first show a counter-example for the lunar halo hypothesis from a parallel record on 1882 November 17, which was seen as a whitish colour, in the southerly direction, and near the Moon. We then consider NN15\u2019s criteria on colour, direction, and sky brightness and investigate other counter-examples from early-modern auroral observations. We also consider the extension of the white vapour in AD 776 according to the distribution of Chinese asterisms, and show that its large extension was inconsistent with the lunar halo hypothesis. Conversely, the streaks of white vapour penetrating the eight Chinese asterisms can be reproduced if we consider auroral-ray structures at altitudes between 97 km and 170 km, along geomagnetic field lines between the L-shells L=1.55 and 1.64. Our investigations show that we should consider candidate auroral records in historical documents not on the basis of the newly suggested a priori criteria by NN15 but based on all the available observational evidence.", 
        "genre": "research_article", 
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s11207-019-1425-7", 
        "inLanguage": [
          "en"
        ], 
        "isAccessibleForFree": false, 
        "isPartOf": [
          {
            "id": "sg:journal.1051932", 
            "issn": [
              "0038-0938", 
              "1573-093X"
            ], 
            "name": "Solar Physics", 
            "type": "Periodical"
          }, 
          {
            "issueNumber": "4", 
            "type": "PublicationIssue"
          }, 
          {
            "type": "PublicationVolume", 
            "volumeNumber": "294"
          }
        ], 
        "name": "Do the Chinese Astronomical Records Dated AD 776 January 12/13 Describe an Auroral Display or a Lunar Halo? A Critical Re-examination", 
        "pagination": "36", 
        "productId": [
          {
            "name": "readcube_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "539da61303922651238bc23e78925da33a8a7e613c90221af5e8cc0619dbd273"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "doi", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "10.1007/s11207-019-1425-7"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "dimensions_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "pub.1113172601"
            ]
          }
        ], 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s11207-019-1425-7", 
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1113172601"
        ], 
        "sdDataset": "articles", 
        "sdDatePublished": "2019-04-11T14:02", 
        "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
        "sdPublisher": {
          "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "sdSource": "s3://com-uberresearch-data-dimensions-target-20181106-alternative/cleanup/v134/2549eaecd7973599484d7c17b260dba0a4ecb94b/merge/v9/a6c9fde33151104705d4d7ff012ea9563521a3ce/jats-lookup/v90/0000000371_0000000371/records_130830_00000006.jsonl", 
        "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
        "url": "https://link.springer.com/10.1007%2Fs11207-019-1425-7"
      }
    ]
     

    Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

    HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

    JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s11207-019-1425-7'

    N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s11207-019-1425-7'

    Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

    curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s11207-019-1425-7'

    RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s11207-019-1425-7'


     

    This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

    334 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      95 URIs      19 LITERALS      7 BLANK NODES

    Subject Predicate Object
    1 sg:pub.10.1007/s11207-019-1425-7 schema:about anzsrc-for:02
    2 anzsrc-for:0201
    3 schema:author N763f0ba1aa474ec78bdf5feb87fbd284
    4 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1007/b105475
    5 sg:pub.10.1007/s00585-000-0001-6
    6 sg:pub.10.1007/s00585-998-0566-z
    7 sg:pub.10.1007/s11207-005-4980-z
    8 sg:pub.10.1007/s11207-016-1035-6
    9 sg:pub.10.1007/s11207-016-1039-2
    10 sg:pub.10.1038/179007a0
    11 sg:pub.10.1038/nature11123
    12 sg:pub.10.1038/ncomms2783
    13 sg:pub.10.1038/ncomms9611
    14 sg:pub.10.1038/s41467-018-05883-1
    15 sg:pub.10.1038/s41467-018-06036-0
    16 sg:pub.10.1038/srep03728
    17 sg:pub.10.1038/srep45257
    18 sg:pub.10.1186/s40623-015-0228-9
    19 sg:pub.10.1186/s40623-015-0250-y
    20 https://doi.org/10.1002/2014gl059874
    21 https://doi.org/10.1002/2014gl062218
    22 https://doi.org/10.1002/2017sw001693
    23 https://doi.org/10.1002/2017sw001795
    24 https://doi.org/10.1002/asna.201412160
    25 https://doi.org/10.1002/asna.201512193
    26 https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1477-8696.1959.tb02450.x
    27 https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.49708235223
    28 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2005.03.157
    29 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2005.08.053
    30 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2005.08.054
    31 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2005.12.021
    32 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2010.02.007
    33 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2014.12.014
    34 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2014.11.048
    35 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jastp.2008.03.012
    36 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pepi.2011.06.017
    37 https://doi.org/10.1016/s1364-6826(98)00040-6
    38 https://doi.org/10.1017/cbo9780511525186
    39 https://doi.org/10.1017/cbo9781139017466
    40 https://doi.org/10.1029/2002ja009504
    41 https://doi.org/10.1029/2017sw001789
    42 https://doi.org/10.1029/jz061i002p00297-02
    43 https://doi.org/10.1029/rg013i001p00201
    44 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1468-4004.2003.45615.x
    45 https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201321080
    46 https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201832735
    47 https://doi.org/10.1051/swsc/2013053
    48 https://doi.org/10.1080/14786444708645871
    49 https://doi.org/10.1080/14786448308627358
    50 https://doi.org/10.1086/141747
    51 https://doi.org/10.1093/astrog/40.6.6.21
    52 https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/20.1.13
    53 https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/20.1.15
    54 https://doi.org/10.1093/pasj/psw032
    55 https://doi.org/10.1093/pasj/psw097
    56 https://doi.org/10.1093/pasj/psw127
    57 https://doi.org/10.1093/pasj/psw128
    58 https://doi.org/10.1093/pasj/psw132
    59 https://doi.org/10.1093/pasj/psx045
    60 https://doi.org/10.1093/pasj/psx087
    61 https://doi.org/10.1098/rspa.2016.0404
    62 https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2000.0569
    63 https://doi.org/10.1111/arcm.12152
    64 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-4004.2009.50520.x
    65 https://doi.org/10.17226/12507
    66 https://doi.org/10.2475/ajs.s2-30.88.79
    67 https://doi.org/10.2475/ajs.s2-30.90.339
    68 https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aaca40
    69 https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aae47c
    70 https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/aa9661
    71 https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-19-289-2001
    72 schema:datePublished 2019-04
    73 schema:datePublishedReg 2019-04-01
    74 schema:description The enhancement of carbon-14 in tree rings around AD 774/775 has generated wide interest in solar activity at that time. The historical auroral records have been examined critically. Of particular interest was the “white vapour” observed in China on AD 776 January 12/13. Both Usoskin et al. (Astron. Astrophys.55, L3, 2013; U13) and Stephenson (Adv. Space Res.55, 1537, 2015; S15) interpreted this record as an auroral display. Subsequently, Neuhäuser and Neuhäuser (Astron. Nachr.336, 225, 2015; NN15) proposed five “criteria” for the likeliness of aurorae and on this basis rejected an auroral interpretation. Instead, they interpreted it as a lunar halo, and suggested there were no auroral records as a proxy of solar activity in the interval AD 774 – 785. We consider if their “lunar halo hypothesis” and their auroral criteria could be of use in future researches on historical auroral candidates. We first show a counter-example for the lunar halo hypothesis from a parallel record on 1882 November 17, which was seen as a whitish colour, in the southerly direction, and near the Moon. We then consider NN15’s criteria on colour, direction, and sky brightness and investigate other counter-examples from early-modern auroral observations. We also consider the extension of the white vapour in AD 776 according to the distribution of Chinese asterisms, and show that its large extension was inconsistent with the lunar halo hypothesis. Conversely, the streaks of white vapour penetrating the eight Chinese asterisms can be reproduced if we consider auroral-ray structures at altitudes between 97 km and 170 km, along geomagnetic field lines between the L-shells L=1.55 and 1.64. Our investigations show that we should consider candidate auroral records in historical documents not on the basis of the newly suggested a priori criteria by NN15 but based on all the available observational evidence.
    75 schema:genre research_article
    76 schema:inLanguage en
    77 schema:isAccessibleForFree false
    78 schema:isPartOf N2cc5c79412304242b92d4d99aca02047
    79 N8f854483ef4d49ccb84e970a4fc2d648
    80 sg:journal.1051932
    81 schema:name Do the Chinese Astronomical Records Dated AD 776 January 12/13 Describe an Auroral Display or a Lunar Halo? A Critical Re-examination
    82 schema:pagination 36
    83 schema:productId N3802ff0be8814c2bbb3952739f9e4a60
    84 N4bc9ee99582e4ee7b365b284ba6775c5
    85 Na7c117998fd84838994d42354d029da9
    86 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1113172601
    87 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11207-019-1425-7
    88 schema:sdDatePublished 2019-04-11T14:02
    89 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
    90 schema:sdPublisher N5c2d80dcaf514a3e84ebcb3820a636a6
    91 schema:url https://link.springer.com/10.1007%2Fs11207-019-1425-7
    92 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
    93 sgo:sdDataset articles
    94 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
    95 N055edc5208554228ae5ea63753b9a922 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.76978.37
    96 schema:familyName Wild
    97 schema:givenName Matthew N.
    98 rdf:type schema:Person
    99 N0c628efe2fc343548c25c4bae98903bb rdf:first N12cd1343354e4a99832c6ec169903244
    100 rdf:rest N3acfadf7192749d6a57702f1aa71ff2c
    101 N12cd1343354e4a99832c6ec169903244 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.258799.8
    102 schema:familyName Ebihara
    103 schema:givenName Yusuke
    104 rdf:type schema:Person
    105 N1c650c6222b8438e8e54be9848daac70 rdf:first N7fc8bd9dc9944ff4a7f22db21de1a300
    106 rdf:rest Ne40c92cdd29a4feebd41f3d0a8555376
    107 N2ae8cf92ac6f45cfae1af9820eff0545 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.9435.b
    108 schema:familyName Scott
    109 schema:givenName Christopher J.
    110 rdf:type schema:Person
    111 N2cc5c79412304242b92d4d99aca02047 schema:volumeNumber 294
    112 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
    113 N3802ff0be8814c2bbb3952739f9e4a60 schema:name dimensions_id
    114 schema:value pub.1113172601
    115 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    116 N3acfadf7192749d6a57702f1aa71ff2c rdf:first N2ae8cf92ac6f45cfae1af9820eff0545
    117 rdf:rest N1c650c6222b8438e8e54be9848daac70
    118 N4bc9ee99582e4ee7b365b284ba6775c5 schema:name readcube_id
    119 schema:value 539da61303922651238bc23e78925da33a8a7e613c90221af5e8cc0619dbd273
    120 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    121 N5c2d80dcaf514a3e84ebcb3820a636a6 schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
    122 rdf:type schema:Organization
    123 N5c5fe2b25db7420093fcbe9666f7a1dd rdf:first N6f3c77cfdd4d4c3a9372baaa8eda55ab
    124 rdf:rest N8470e1575b364337a1d732968c2b1235
    125 N6f3c77cfdd4d4c3a9372baaa8eda55ab schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.7372.1
    126 schema:familyName Willis
    127 schema:givenName David M.
    128 rdf:type schema:Person
    129 N763f0ba1aa474ec78bdf5feb87fbd284 rdf:first N7f9a29cb159e4935ad7270cb5acde1b4
    130 rdf:rest N5c5fe2b25db7420093fcbe9666f7a1dd
    131 N7f9a29cb159e4935ad7270cb5acde1b4 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.8250.f
    132 schema:familyName Stephenson
    133 schema:givenName F. Richard
    134 rdf:type schema:Person
    135 N7fc8bd9dc9944ff4a7f22db21de1a300 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.4991.5
    136 schema:familyName Wilkinson
    137 schema:givenName Julia
    138 rdf:type schema:Person
    139 N8470e1575b364337a1d732968c2b1235 rdf:first Nbc69ad8b49d44eda89bf25924f48a839
    140 rdf:rest N0c628efe2fc343548c25c4bae98903bb
    141 N8f854483ef4d49ccb84e970a4fc2d648 schema:issueNumber 4
    142 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
    143 Na7c117998fd84838994d42354d029da9 schema:name doi
    144 schema:value 10.1007/s11207-019-1425-7
    145 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    146 Nbc69ad8b49d44eda89bf25924f48a839 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.76978.37
    147 schema:familyName Hayakawa
    148 schema:givenName Hisashi
    149 rdf:type schema:Person
    150 Ne40c92cdd29a4feebd41f3d0a8555376 rdf:first N055edc5208554228ae5ea63753b9a922
    151 rdf:rest rdf:nil
    152 anzsrc-for:02 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    153 schema:name Physical Sciences
    154 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    155 anzsrc-for:0201 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    156 schema:name Astronomical and Space Sciences
    157 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    158 sg:journal.1051932 schema:issn 0038-0938
    159 1573-093X
    160 schema:name Solar Physics
    161 rdf:type schema:Periodical
    162 sg:pub.10.1007/b105475 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039502310
    163 https://doi.org/10.1007/b105475
    164 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    165 sg:pub.10.1007/s00585-000-0001-6 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011936068
    166 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00585-000-0001-6
    167 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    168 sg:pub.10.1007/s00585-998-0566-z schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012179048
    169 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00585-998-0566-z
    170 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    171 sg:pub.10.1007/s11207-005-4980-z schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009216930
    172 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11207-005-4980-z
    173 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    174 sg:pub.10.1007/s11207-016-1035-6 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027283658
    175 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11207-016-1035-6
    176 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    177 sg:pub.10.1007/s11207-016-1039-2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031947939
    178 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11207-016-1039-2
    179 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    180 sg:pub.10.1038/179007a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046949778
    181 https://doi.org/10.1038/179007a0
    182 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    183 sg:pub.10.1038/nature11123 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004171407
    184 https://doi.org/10.1038/nature11123
    185 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    186 sg:pub.10.1038/ncomms2783 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020147582
    187 https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms2783
    188 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    189 sg:pub.10.1038/ncomms9611 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050943888
    190 https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms9611
    191 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    192 sg:pub.10.1038/s41467-018-05883-1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1106310186
    193 https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-05883-1
    194 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    195 sg:pub.10.1038/s41467-018-06036-0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1106476042
    196 https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-06036-0
    197 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    198 sg:pub.10.1038/srep03728 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049125578
    199 https://doi.org/10.1038/srep03728
    200 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    201 sg:pub.10.1038/srep45257 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1084133097
    202 https://doi.org/10.1038/srep45257
    203 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    204 sg:pub.10.1186/s40623-015-0228-9 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015525952
    205 https://doi.org/10.1186/s40623-015-0228-9
    206 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    207 sg:pub.10.1186/s40623-015-0250-y schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051038859
    208 https://doi.org/10.1186/s40623-015-0250-y
    209 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    210 https://doi.org/10.1002/2014gl059874 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045121965
    211 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    212 https://doi.org/10.1002/2014gl062218 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021267945
    213 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    214 https://doi.org/10.1002/2017sw001693 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1092149356
    215 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    216 https://doi.org/10.1002/2017sw001795 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1100107694
    217 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    218 https://doi.org/10.1002/asna.201412160 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037349953
    219 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    220 https://doi.org/10.1002/asna.201512193 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017661281
    221 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    222 https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1477-8696.1959.tb02450.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017570185
    223 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    224 https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.49708235223 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046157123
    225 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    226 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2005.03.157 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051650180
    227 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    228 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2005.08.053 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038023929
    229 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    230 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2005.08.054 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042674231
    231 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    232 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2005.12.021 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017055665
    233 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    234 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2010.02.007 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042066822
    235 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    236 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2014.12.014 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045586895
    237 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    238 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2014.11.048 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050029454
    239 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    240 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jastp.2008.03.012 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019407197
    241 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    242 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pepi.2011.06.017 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021888914
    243 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    244 https://doi.org/10.1016/s1364-6826(98)00040-6 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020946697
    245 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    246 https://doi.org/10.1017/cbo9780511525186 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1098708403
    247 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    248 https://doi.org/10.1017/cbo9781139017466 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1098714438
    249 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    250 https://doi.org/10.1029/2002ja009504 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023136858
    251 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    252 https://doi.org/10.1029/2017sw001789 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1104293970
    253 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    254 https://doi.org/10.1029/jz061i002p00297-02 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005977674
    255 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    256 https://doi.org/10.1029/rg013i001p00201 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011077701
    257 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    258 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1468-4004.2003.45615.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004470074
    259 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    260 https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201321080 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1056919934
    261 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    262 https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201832735 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1103911427
    263 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    264 https://doi.org/10.1051/swsc/2013053 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1057070998
    265 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    266 https://doi.org/10.1080/14786444708645871 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004855663
    267 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    268 https://doi.org/10.1080/14786448308627358 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007146467
    269 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    270 https://doi.org/10.1086/141747 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058473038
    271 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    272 https://doi.org/10.1093/astrog/40.6.6.21 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034246250
    273 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    274 https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/20.1.13 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042960154
    275 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    276 https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/20.1.15 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035497183
    277 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    278 https://doi.org/10.1093/pasj/psw032 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013616426
    279 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    280 https://doi.org/10.1093/pasj/psw097 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1059969858
    281 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    282 https://doi.org/10.1093/pasj/psw127 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1059969886
    283 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    284 https://doi.org/10.1093/pasj/psw128 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1059969887
    285 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    286 https://doi.org/10.1093/pasj/psw132 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1083934010
    287 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    288 https://doi.org/10.1093/pasj/psx045 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1085538656
    289 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    290 https://doi.org/10.1093/pasj/psx087 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1092254301
    291 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    292 https://doi.org/10.1098/rspa.2016.0404 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007397875
    293 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    294 https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2000.0569 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038763756
    295 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    296 https://doi.org/10.1111/arcm.12152 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031634058
    297 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    298 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-4004.2009.50520.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029462853
    299 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    300 https://doi.org/10.17226/12507 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1108734146
    301 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    302 https://doi.org/10.2475/ajs.s2-30.88.79 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1070842542
    303 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    304 https://doi.org/10.2475/ajs.s2-30.90.339 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1070842559
    305 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    306 https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aaca40 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1105728879
    307 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    308 https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aae47c schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1110551613
    309 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    310 https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/aa9661 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1093105213
    311 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    312 https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-19-289-2001 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024727585
    313 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    314 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.258799.8 schema:alternateName Kyoto University
    315 schema:name Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere, Kyoto University, 6110011, Gokasho, Uji, Japan
    316 Unit of Synergetic Studies for Space, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-oiwake-cho, 6068306, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, Japan
    317 rdf:type schema:Organization
    318 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.4991.5 schema:alternateName University of Oxford
    319 schema:name Zooniverse, c/o Astrophysics Department, University of Oxford, OX1 3RH, Oxford, UK
    320 rdf:type schema:Organization
    321 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.7372.1 schema:alternateName University of Warwick
    322 schema:name Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, CV4 7AL, Coventry, UK
    323 UK Solar System Data Centre, Space Physics and Operations Division, RAL Space, Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot, OX11 0QX, Oxfordshire, UK
    324 rdf:type schema:Organization
    325 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.76978.37 schema:alternateName Rutherford Appleton Laboratory
    326 schema:name Graduate School of Letters, Osaka University, 5600043, Toyonaka, Osaka, Japan
    327 UK Solar System Data Centre, Space Physics and Operations Division, RAL Space, Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot, OX11 0QX, Oxfordshire, UK
    328 rdf:type schema:Organization
    329 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.8250.f schema:alternateName Durham University
    330 schema:name Department of Physics, University of Durham, DH1 3LE, Durham, UK
    331 rdf:type schema:Organization
    332 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.9435.b schema:alternateName University of Reading
    333 schema:name Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, RG6 6BB, Reading, UK
    334 rdf:type schema:Organization
     




    Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


    ...