Primary hypophysitis and other autoimmune disorders of the sellar and suprasellar regions View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

2018-12

AUTHORS

Sriram Gubbi, Fady Hannah-Shmouni, Constantine A. Stratakis, Christian A. Koch

ABSTRACT

The pituitary gland and the hypothalamus can be affected by autoimmune-mediated structural and functional disruption. These autoimmune-mediated diseases occur more commonly in females and are often found during pregnancy or in the post-partum period. Autoimmune diseases can either affect parts of the pituitary or hypothalamus, or can involve both sellar and suprasellar structures. Most of these cases comprise primary hypophysitis (PRH). Over the years, there has been a tremendous increase in the number of reported PRH cases and related disorders, including hypophysitis induced by immune checkpoint inhibitors. With this increasing data, more light is being shed on the spectrum of clinical presentations, biochemical and imaging abnormalities of these disorders. Regardless, these disorders are still relatively rare. The clinical presentation can vary vastly, based on the type of pituitary cell or the area of the suprasellar region affected. The severity can range from clinically silent disease to progressive and rapid deterioration and death, likely due to unrecognized central adrenal insufficiency. Although biopsy remains a gold standard for diagnosing these disorders, the current standard of practice is biochemical assessment for hormonal deficiencies and imaging studies. In several instances, these disorders spontaneously resolve, but medical or surgical intervention might be necessary to treat symptomatic disease. Due to the subtlety and a vast spectrum of clinical manifestations which could often be asymptomatic, and the rarity of the occurrence of these diseases in clinical practice, the diagnosis can be easily missed which could potentially lead to substantial morbidity or mortality. Therefore, it is crucial to have a strong clinical suspicion and pursue timely biochemical and imaging studies to initiate prompt treatment. In this article, we review the various autoimmune conditions that affect the sellar and suprasellar structures, their diagnostic approach and management of these disorders. More... »

PAGES

335-347

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s11154-018-9480-1

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11154-018-9480-1

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1110556053

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30547288


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100 schema:description The pituitary gland and the hypothalamus can be affected by autoimmune-mediated structural and functional disruption. These autoimmune-mediated diseases occur more commonly in females and are often found during pregnancy or in the post-partum period. Autoimmune diseases can either affect parts of the pituitary or hypothalamus, or can involve both sellar and suprasellar structures. Most of these cases comprise primary hypophysitis (PRH). Over the years, there has been a tremendous increase in the number of reported PRH cases and related disorders, including hypophysitis induced by immune checkpoint inhibitors. With this increasing data, more light is being shed on the spectrum of clinical presentations, biochemical and imaging abnormalities of these disorders. Regardless, these disorders are still relatively rare. The clinical presentation can vary vastly, based on the type of pituitary cell or the area of the suprasellar region affected. The severity can range from clinically silent disease to progressive and rapid deterioration and death, likely due to unrecognized central adrenal insufficiency. Although biopsy remains a gold standard for diagnosing these disorders, the current standard of practice is biochemical assessment for hormonal deficiencies and imaging studies. In several instances, these disorders spontaneously resolve, but medical or surgical intervention might be necessary to treat symptomatic disease. Due to the subtlety and a vast spectrum of clinical manifestations which could often be asymptomatic, and the rarity of the occurrence of these diseases in clinical practice, the diagnosis can be easily missed which could potentially lead to substantial morbidity or mortality. Therefore, it is crucial to have a strong clinical suspicion and pursue timely biochemical and imaging studies to initiate prompt treatment. In this article, we review the various autoimmune conditions that affect the sellar and suprasellar structures, their diagnostic approach and management of these disorders.
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