Impact of Buffer, Protein Concentration and Sucrose Addition on the Aggregation and Particle Formation during Freezing and Thawing View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2018-05

AUTHORS

Astrid Hauptmann, Katja Podgoršek, Drago Kuzman, Stanko Srčič, Georg Hoelzl, Thomas Loerting

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study addresses the effect of freezing and thawing on a therapeutic monoclonal antibody (mAb) solution and the corresponding buffer formulation. Particle formation, crystallization behaviour, morphology changes and cryo-concentration effects were studied after varying the freezing and thawing rates, buffer formulation and protein concentration. The impact of undergoing multiple freeze/thaw (FT)-cycles at controlled and uncontrolled temperature rates on mAb solutions was investigated in terms of particle formation. METHODS: Physicochemical characteristics were analysed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry whereas morphology changes are visualized by cryomicroscopy measurements. Micro Flow Imaging, Archimedes and Dynamic Light Scattering were used to investigate particle formation. RESULTS: Data retrieved in the present study emphasizes the damage caused by multiple FT-cyles and the need for sucrose as a cryoprotectant preventing cold-crystallization specifically at high protein concentrations. Low protein concentrations cause an increase of micron particle formation. Low freezing rates lead to a decreased particle number with increased particle diameter. CONCLUSION: The overall goal of this research is to gain a better understanding of the freezing and thawing behaviour of mAb solutions with the ultimate aim to optimize this process step by reducing the unwanted particle formation, which also includes protein aggregates. More... »

PAGES

101

References to SciGraph publications

  • 2002-02. Thermophysical Properties of Pharmaceutically Compatible Buffers at Sub-Zero Temperatures: Implications for Freeze-Drying in PHARMACEUTICAL RESEARCH
  • 2011-02. The Effect of Crystallizing and Non-crystallizing Cosolutes on Succinate Buffer Crystallization and the Consequent pH Shift in Frozen Solutions in PHARMACEUTICAL RESEARCH
  • 2004-06. Structure-Immunogenicity Relationships of Therapeutic Proteins in PHARMACEUTICAL RESEARCH
  • 2005-07. The Effect of Stabilizers and Denaturants on the Cold Denaturation Temperatures of Proteins and Implications for Freeze-Drying in PHARMACEUTICAL RESEARCH
  • 2010-11. Leachables from Saline-Containing IV Bags Can Alter Therapeutic Protein Properties in PHARMACEUTICAL RESEARCH
  • 1994-01. Measurement of Glass Transition Temperatures of Freeze-Concentrated Solutes by Differential Scanning Calorimetry in PHARMACEUTICAL RESEARCH
  • 1995-01. Surface Denaturation at Solid-Void Interface—A Possible Pathway by Which Opalescent Participates Form During the Storage of Lyophilized Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator at High Temperatures in PHARMACEUTICAL RESEARCH
  • 2015-05. Visualization of Freezing Process in situ upon Cooling and Warming of Aqueous Solutions in SCIENTIFIC REPORTS
  • 2011-04. Frozen State Storage Instability of a Monoclonal Antibody: Aggregation as a Consequence of Trehalose Crystallization and Protein Unfolding in PHARMACEUTICAL RESEARCH
  • 2003-09. Physical Stability of Proteins in Aqueous Solution: Mechanism and Driving Forces in Nonnative Protein Aggregation in PHARMACEUTICAL RESEARCH
  • 2006-09. Effects of protein aggregates: An immunologic perspective in THE AAPS JOURNAL
  • 2017-02. Effects of Excipient Interactions on the State of the Freeze-Concentrate and Protein Stability in PHARMACEUTICAL RESEARCH
  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s11095-018-2378-5

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11095-018-2378-5

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1101624746

    PUBMED

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29556730


    Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
    Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

    JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

    TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

    [
      {
        "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
        "about": [
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/0299", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Other Physical Sciences", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/02", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Physical Sciences", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }
        ], 
        "author": [
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "name": [
                "Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Innsbruck, Innrain 52c, 6020, Innsbruck, Austria"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Hauptmann", 
            "givenName": "Astrid", 
            "id": "sg:person.010704003077.53", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.010704003077.53"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "name": [
                "Lek Menge\u0161, 1234, Menge\u0161, Slovenia"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Podgor\u0161ek", 
            "givenName": "Katja", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "name": [
                "Lek Menge\u0161, 1234, Menge\u0161, Slovenia"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Kuzman", 
            "givenName": "Drago", 
            "id": "sg:person.01221513173.30", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01221513173.30"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "University of Ljubljana", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.8954.0", 
              "name": [
                "Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ljubljana, 1000, Ljubljana, Slovenia"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Sr\u010di\u010d", 
            "givenName": "Stanko", 
            "id": "sg:person.01076674047.63", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01076674047.63"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "name": [
                "Sandoz GmbH, 6336, Langkampfen, Austria"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Hoelzl", 
            "givenName": "Georg", 
            "id": "sg:person.014216150670.41", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.014216150670.41"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "name": [
                "Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Innsbruck, Innrain 52c, 6020, Innsbruck, Austria"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Loerting", 
            "givenName": "Thomas", 
            "id": "sg:person.01045160576.55", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01045160576.55"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }
        ], 
        "citation": [
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpb.2008.04.021", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000335377"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.20966", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000663447"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1023/a:1018989509893", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001100648", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1018989509893"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.21530", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002538494"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.21737", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003930963"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1080/10837450701481157", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005125710"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.21575", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005549209"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/js980126i", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006505845"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.3109/10837459809028500", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006544664"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.21017", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008702432"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-3495(96)79640-6", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011634803"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s11095-010-0282-8", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013469765", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s11095-010-0282-8"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0268-005x(09)80261-0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013699022"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.22305", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017592948"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/bp070462h", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017858082"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1061692", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019115978"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.m110.160457", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020556202"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biologicals.2010.07.002", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022446253"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-3495(93)81361-4", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025532565"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trac.2013.05.005", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026049913"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.24013", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028362001"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.23839", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029609727"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2014.02.001", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030806339"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s11095-005-6035-4", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031205549", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s11095-005-6035-4"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s11095-005-6035-4", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031205549", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s11095-005-6035-4"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1023/a:1016270103863", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031319767", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1016270103863"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/srep07414", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032311362", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/srep07414"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/bkcs.10685", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032846912"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/pro.5560060123", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033230331"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/pro.5560060123", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033230331"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/2074149", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034994858"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1208/aapsj080359", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035788506", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1208/aapsj080359"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-5173(02)00021-2", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036194837"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1023/b:pham.0000029275.41323.a6", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036337946", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1023/b:pham.0000029275.41323.a6"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s11095-016-2078-y", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037338586", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s11095-016-2078-y"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s11095-016-2078-y", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037338586", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s11095-016-2078-y"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/biot.201400766", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037344660"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1023/a:1025771421906", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037420148", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1025771421906"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1023/a:1014229001433", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037802765", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1014229001433"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.23473", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037933198"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0040-6031(94)80095-2", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039814564"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.10184", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039884499"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-3495(85)83932-1", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039980934"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/btpr.530", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040160981"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/bit.10612", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043523711"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0963-9969(95)93324-n", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043825878"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-3495(00)76630-6", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043870668"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.21110", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045033120"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1529/biophysj.106.099531", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045738848"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1088/0953-8984/19/3/033101", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046781034"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.24530", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047505347"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bpc.2015.05.007", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048379923"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.22790", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050916722"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s11095-010-0193-8", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050977039", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s11095-010-0193-8"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s11095-010-0193-8", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050977039", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s11095-010-0193-8"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1039/f19888402619", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051999406"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s11095-010-0343-z", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053174890", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s11095-010-0343-z"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/cr000689q", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053778892"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/cr000689q", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053778892"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1017/s0033583500004303", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1054060662"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1017/s0033583500004303", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1054060662"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/bi00039a051", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055158336"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/bi00519a023", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055179174"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.01.017", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1083895498"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/bk-1991-0458.ch016", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1089369145"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpb.2017.06.029", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1090365809"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }
        ], 
        "datePublished": "2018-05", 
        "datePublishedReg": "2018-05-01", 
        "description": "PURPOSE: This study addresses the effect of freezing and thawing on a therapeutic monoclonal antibody (mAb) solution and the corresponding buffer formulation. Particle formation, crystallization behaviour, morphology changes and cryo-concentration effects were studied after varying the freezing and thawing rates, buffer formulation and protein concentration. The impact of undergoing multiple freeze/thaw (FT)-cycles at controlled and uncontrolled temperature rates on mAb solutions was investigated in terms of particle formation.\nMETHODS: Physicochemical characteristics were analysed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry whereas morphology changes are visualized by cryomicroscopy measurements. Micro Flow Imaging, Archimedes and Dynamic Light Scattering were used to investigate particle formation.\nRESULTS: Data retrieved in the present study emphasizes the damage caused by multiple FT-cyles and the need for sucrose as a cryoprotectant preventing cold-crystallization specifically at high protein concentrations. Low protein concentrations cause an increase of micron particle formation. Low freezing rates lead to a decreased particle number with increased particle diameter.\nCONCLUSION: The overall goal of this research is to gain a better understanding of the freezing and thawing behaviour of mAb solutions with the ultimate aim to optimize this process step by reducing the unwanted particle formation, which also includes protein aggregates.", 
        "genre": "research_article", 
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s11095-018-2378-5", 
        "inLanguage": [
          "en"
        ], 
        "isAccessibleForFree": true, 
        "isFundedItemOf": [
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.6207071", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }
        ], 
        "isPartOf": [
          {
            "id": "sg:journal.1094644", 
            "issn": [
              "0724-8741", 
              "1573-904X"
            ], 
            "name": "Pharmaceutical Research", 
            "type": "Periodical"
          }, 
          {
            "issueNumber": "5", 
            "type": "PublicationIssue"
          }, 
          {
            "type": "PublicationVolume", 
            "volumeNumber": "35"
          }
        ], 
        "name": "Impact of Buffer, Protein Concentration and Sucrose Addition on the Aggregation and Particle Formation during Freezing and Thawing", 
        "pagination": "101", 
        "productId": [
          {
            "name": "readcube_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "680c8df6202118d3fd9d3bbe50b12c276a278d9c22f25b490dbca61da41d7eba"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "pubmed_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "29556730"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "nlm_unique_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "8406521"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "doi", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "10.1007/s11095-018-2378-5"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "dimensions_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "pub.1101624746"
            ]
          }
        ], 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s11095-018-2378-5", 
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1101624746"
        ], 
        "sdDataset": "articles", 
        "sdDatePublished": "2019-04-11T12:11", 
        "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
        "sdPublisher": {
          "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "sdSource": "s3://com-uberresearch-data-dimensions-target-20181106-alternative/cleanup/v134/2549eaecd7973599484d7c17b260dba0a4ecb94b/merge/v9/a6c9fde33151104705d4d7ff012ea9563521a3ce/jats-lookup/v90/0000000361_0000000361/records_53981_00000001.jsonl", 
        "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
        "url": "https://link.springer.com/10.1007%2Fs11095-018-2378-5"
      }
    ]
     

    Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

    HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

    JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s11095-018-2378-5'

    N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s11095-018-2378-5'

    Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

    curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s11095-018-2378-5'

    RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s11095-018-2378-5'


     

    This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

    307 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      89 URIs      21 LITERALS      9 BLANK NODES

    Subject Predicate Object
    1 sg:pub.10.1007/s11095-018-2378-5 schema:about anzsrc-for:02
    2 anzsrc-for:0299
    3 schema:author N259a1125857741e9bb7b27547a024998
    4 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1007/s11095-005-6035-4
    5 sg:pub.10.1007/s11095-010-0193-8
    6 sg:pub.10.1007/s11095-010-0282-8
    7 sg:pub.10.1007/s11095-010-0343-z
    8 sg:pub.10.1007/s11095-016-2078-y
    9 sg:pub.10.1023/a:1014229001433
    10 sg:pub.10.1023/a:1016270103863
    11 sg:pub.10.1023/a:1018989509893
    12 sg:pub.10.1023/a:1025771421906
    13 sg:pub.10.1023/b:pham.0000029275.41323.a6
    14 sg:pub.10.1038/srep07414
    15 sg:pub.10.1208/aapsj080359
    16 https://doi.org/10.1002/biot.201400766
    17 https://doi.org/10.1002/bit.10612
    18 https://doi.org/10.1002/bkcs.10685
    19 https://doi.org/10.1002/btpr.530
    20 https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.10184
    21 https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.20966
    22 https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.21017
    23 https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.21110
    24 https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.21530
    25 https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.21575
    26 https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.21737
    27 https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.22305
    28 https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.22790
    29 https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.23473
    30 https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.23839
    31 https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.24013
    32 https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.24530
    33 https://doi.org/10.1002/pro.5560060123
    34 https://doi.org/10.1016/0040-6031(94)80095-2
    35 https://doi.org/10.1016/0963-9969(95)93324-n
    36 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.01.017
    37 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biologicals.2010.07.002
    38 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bpc.2015.05.007
    39 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpb.2008.04.021
    40 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpb.2017.06.029
    41 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2014.02.001
    42 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trac.2013.05.005
    43 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-3495(00)76630-6
    44 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-3495(85)83932-1
    45 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-3495(93)81361-4
    46 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-3495(96)79640-6
    47 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0268-005x(09)80261-0
    48 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-5173(02)00021-2
    49 https://doi.org/10.1017/s0033583500004303
    50 https://doi.org/10.1021/bi00039a051
    51 https://doi.org/10.1021/bi00519a023
    52 https://doi.org/10.1021/bk-1991-0458.ch016
    53 https://doi.org/10.1021/bp070462h
    54 https://doi.org/10.1021/cr000689q
    55 https://doi.org/10.1021/js980126i
    56 https://doi.org/10.1039/f19888402619
    57 https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.m110.160457
    58 https://doi.org/10.1080/10837450701481157
    59 https://doi.org/10.1088/0953-8984/19/3/033101
    60 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1061692
    61 https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/2074149
    62 https://doi.org/10.1529/biophysj.106.099531
    63 https://doi.org/10.3109/10837459809028500
    64 schema:datePublished 2018-05
    65 schema:datePublishedReg 2018-05-01
    66 schema:description PURPOSE: This study addresses the effect of freezing and thawing on a therapeutic monoclonal antibody (mAb) solution and the corresponding buffer formulation. Particle formation, crystallization behaviour, morphology changes and cryo-concentration effects were studied after varying the freezing and thawing rates, buffer formulation and protein concentration. The impact of undergoing multiple freeze/thaw (FT)-cycles at controlled and uncontrolled temperature rates on mAb solutions was investigated in terms of particle formation. METHODS: Physicochemical characteristics were analysed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry whereas morphology changes are visualized by cryomicroscopy measurements. Micro Flow Imaging, Archimedes and Dynamic Light Scattering were used to investigate particle formation. RESULTS: Data retrieved in the present study emphasizes the damage caused by multiple FT-cyles and the need for sucrose as a cryoprotectant preventing cold-crystallization specifically at high protein concentrations. Low protein concentrations cause an increase of micron particle formation. Low freezing rates lead to a decreased particle number with increased particle diameter. CONCLUSION: The overall goal of this research is to gain a better understanding of the freezing and thawing behaviour of mAb solutions with the ultimate aim to optimize this process step by reducing the unwanted particle formation, which also includes protein aggregates.
    67 schema:genre research_article
    68 schema:inLanguage en
    69 schema:isAccessibleForFree true
    70 schema:isPartOf N4dc801ecdd2c4d38a40bfad85fb7d089
    71 Ncc41cf9476a3453a9c3ec4554159a9fa
    72 sg:journal.1094644
    73 schema:name Impact of Buffer, Protein Concentration and Sucrose Addition on the Aggregation and Particle Formation during Freezing and Thawing
    74 schema:pagination 101
    75 schema:productId N088c680237ae49eeafa3e06e3602dec8
    76 N2d54823bcb79425db3bca1fdf68e74fb
    77 N539a1f9c7a1f40afb5a03f78dbf250c2
    78 N87f318f53ecd4c7bbcca1ea62b3ce54d
    79 Naca03282f0464bf99b134c015c4bacf5
    80 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1101624746
    81 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11095-018-2378-5
    82 schema:sdDatePublished 2019-04-11T12:11
    83 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
    84 schema:sdPublisher N2abb5d9762164aaa9c61b57f9dce7785
    85 schema:url https://link.springer.com/10.1007%2Fs11095-018-2378-5
    86 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
    87 sgo:sdDataset articles
    88 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
    89 N015fcb6333f242c084411193532d8541 schema:name Lek Mengeš, 1234, Mengeš, Slovenia
    90 rdf:type schema:Organization
    91 N088c680237ae49eeafa3e06e3602dec8 schema:name nlm_unique_id
    92 schema:value 8406521
    93 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    94 N165f82bf91fb4cf4b4cb60d1506395b7 rdf:first sg:person.01221513173.30
    95 rdf:rest Ndd40143a99b44e26bd719acb7e22ecc0
    96 N259a1125857741e9bb7b27547a024998 rdf:first sg:person.010704003077.53
    97 rdf:rest N6f60b4a446284655a274409cc7cd9ac7
    98 N2abb5d9762164aaa9c61b57f9dce7785 schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
    99 rdf:type schema:Organization
    100 N2d54823bcb79425db3bca1fdf68e74fb schema:name readcube_id
    101 schema:value 680c8df6202118d3fd9d3bbe50b12c276a278d9c22f25b490dbca61da41d7eba
    102 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    103 N3443d0bd8be4445792cb823b34338d8a rdf:first sg:person.01045160576.55
    104 rdf:rest rdf:nil
    105 N4dc801ecdd2c4d38a40bfad85fb7d089 schema:issueNumber 5
    106 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
    107 N539a1f9c7a1f40afb5a03f78dbf250c2 schema:name doi
    108 schema:value 10.1007/s11095-018-2378-5
    109 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    110 N5b48c08f976d473b9b003687e3a6c34c rdf:first sg:person.014216150670.41
    111 rdf:rest N3443d0bd8be4445792cb823b34338d8a
    112 N5bee4a3d5efc455bb1407a1f9426d501 schema:affiliation N015fcb6333f242c084411193532d8541
    113 schema:familyName Podgoršek
    114 schema:givenName Katja
    115 rdf:type schema:Person
    116 N6323e17fa3864ee78d0dd2f289c61910 schema:name Lek Mengeš, 1234, Mengeš, Slovenia
    117 rdf:type schema:Organization
    118 N6f60b4a446284655a274409cc7cd9ac7 rdf:first N5bee4a3d5efc455bb1407a1f9426d501
    119 rdf:rest N165f82bf91fb4cf4b4cb60d1506395b7
    120 N87f318f53ecd4c7bbcca1ea62b3ce54d schema:name pubmed_id
    121 schema:value 29556730
    122 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    123 Naca03282f0464bf99b134c015c4bacf5 schema:name dimensions_id
    124 schema:value pub.1101624746
    125 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    126 Nadabaa3d37f642c6a4525c3addfa4155 schema:name Sandoz GmbH, 6336, Langkampfen, Austria
    127 rdf:type schema:Organization
    128 Ncc41cf9476a3453a9c3ec4554159a9fa schema:volumeNumber 35
    129 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
    130 Ncde1bb69c2974d1a929af85ee8fd7978 schema:name Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Innsbruck, Innrain 52c, 6020, Innsbruck, Austria
    131 rdf:type schema:Organization
    132 Ndd40143a99b44e26bd719acb7e22ecc0 rdf:first sg:person.01076674047.63
    133 rdf:rest N5b48c08f976d473b9b003687e3a6c34c
    134 Nfd5228b8e1d9492f800e7d08d82bb32e schema:name Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Innsbruck, Innrain 52c, 6020, Innsbruck, Austria
    135 rdf:type schema:Organization
    136 anzsrc-for:02 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    137 schema:name Physical Sciences
    138 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    139 anzsrc-for:0299 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    140 schema:name Other Physical Sciences
    141 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    142 sg:grant.6207071 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1007/s11095-018-2378-5
    143 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    144 sg:journal.1094644 schema:issn 0724-8741
    145 1573-904X
    146 schema:name Pharmaceutical Research
    147 rdf:type schema:Periodical
    148 sg:person.01045160576.55 schema:affiliation Ncde1bb69c2974d1a929af85ee8fd7978
    149 schema:familyName Loerting
    150 schema:givenName Thomas
    151 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01045160576.55
    152 rdf:type schema:Person
    153 sg:person.010704003077.53 schema:affiliation Nfd5228b8e1d9492f800e7d08d82bb32e
    154 schema:familyName Hauptmann
    155 schema:givenName Astrid
    156 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.010704003077.53
    157 rdf:type schema:Person
    158 sg:person.01076674047.63 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.8954.0
    159 schema:familyName Srčič
    160 schema:givenName Stanko
    161 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01076674047.63
    162 rdf:type schema:Person
    163 sg:person.01221513173.30 schema:affiliation N6323e17fa3864ee78d0dd2f289c61910
    164 schema:familyName Kuzman
    165 schema:givenName Drago
    166 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01221513173.30
    167 rdf:type schema:Person
    168 sg:person.014216150670.41 schema:affiliation Nadabaa3d37f642c6a4525c3addfa4155
    169 schema:familyName Hoelzl
    170 schema:givenName Georg
    171 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.014216150670.41
    172 rdf:type schema:Person
    173 sg:pub.10.1007/s11095-005-6035-4 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031205549
    174 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11095-005-6035-4
    175 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    176 sg:pub.10.1007/s11095-010-0193-8 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050977039
    177 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11095-010-0193-8
    178 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    179 sg:pub.10.1007/s11095-010-0282-8 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013469765
    180 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11095-010-0282-8
    181 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    182 sg:pub.10.1007/s11095-010-0343-z schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053174890
    183 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11095-010-0343-z
    184 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    185 sg:pub.10.1007/s11095-016-2078-y schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037338586
    186 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11095-016-2078-y
    187 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    188 sg:pub.10.1023/a:1014229001433 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037802765
    189 https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1014229001433
    190 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    191 sg:pub.10.1023/a:1016270103863 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031319767
    192 https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1016270103863
    193 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    194 sg:pub.10.1023/a:1018989509893 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001100648
    195 https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1018989509893
    196 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    197 sg:pub.10.1023/a:1025771421906 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037420148
    198 https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1025771421906
    199 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    200 sg:pub.10.1023/b:pham.0000029275.41323.a6 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036337946
    201 https://doi.org/10.1023/b:pham.0000029275.41323.a6
    202 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    203 sg:pub.10.1038/srep07414 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032311362
    204 https://doi.org/10.1038/srep07414
    205 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    206 sg:pub.10.1208/aapsj080359 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035788506
    207 https://doi.org/10.1208/aapsj080359
    208 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    209 https://doi.org/10.1002/biot.201400766 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037344660
    210 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    211 https://doi.org/10.1002/bit.10612 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043523711
    212 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    213 https://doi.org/10.1002/bkcs.10685 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032846912
    214 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    215 https://doi.org/10.1002/btpr.530 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040160981
    216 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    217 https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.10184 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039884499
    218 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    219 https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.20966 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000663447
    220 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    221 https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.21017 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008702432
    222 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    223 https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.21110 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045033120
    224 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    225 https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.21530 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002538494
    226 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    227 https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.21575 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005549209
    228 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    229 https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.21737 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003930963
    230 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    231 https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.22305 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017592948
    232 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    233 https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.22790 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050916722
    234 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    235 https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.23473 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037933198
    236 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    237 https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.23839 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029609727
    238 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    239 https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.24013 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028362001
    240 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    241 https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.24530 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047505347
    242 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    243 https://doi.org/10.1002/pro.5560060123 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033230331
    244 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    245 https://doi.org/10.1016/0040-6031(94)80095-2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039814564
    246 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    247 https://doi.org/10.1016/0963-9969(95)93324-n schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043825878
    248 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    249 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.01.017 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1083895498
    250 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    251 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biologicals.2010.07.002 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022446253
    252 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    253 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bpc.2015.05.007 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048379923
    254 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    255 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpb.2008.04.021 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000335377
    256 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    257 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpb.2017.06.029 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1090365809
    258 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    259 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2014.02.001 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030806339
    260 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    261 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trac.2013.05.005 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026049913
    262 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    263 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-3495(00)76630-6 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043870668
    264 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    265 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-3495(85)83932-1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039980934
    266 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    267 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-3495(93)81361-4 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025532565
    268 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    269 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-3495(96)79640-6 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011634803
    270 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    271 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0268-005x(09)80261-0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013699022
    272 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    273 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-5173(02)00021-2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036194837
    274 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    275 https://doi.org/10.1017/s0033583500004303 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1054060662
    276 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    277 https://doi.org/10.1021/bi00039a051 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055158336
    278 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    279 https://doi.org/10.1021/bi00519a023 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055179174
    280 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    281 https://doi.org/10.1021/bk-1991-0458.ch016 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1089369145
    282 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    283 https://doi.org/10.1021/bp070462h schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017858082
    284 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    285 https://doi.org/10.1021/cr000689q schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053778892
    286 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    287 https://doi.org/10.1021/js980126i schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006505845
    288 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    289 https://doi.org/10.1039/f19888402619 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051999406
    290 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    291 https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.m110.160457 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020556202
    292 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    293 https://doi.org/10.1080/10837450701481157 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005125710
    294 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    295 https://doi.org/10.1088/0953-8984/19/3/033101 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046781034
    296 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    297 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1061692 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019115978
    298 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    299 https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/2074149 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034994858
    300 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    301 https://doi.org/10.1529/biophysj.106.099531 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045738848
    302 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    303 https://doi.org/10.3109/10837459809028500 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006544664
    304 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    305 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.8954.0 schema:alternateName University of Ljubljana
    306 schema:name Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ljubljana, 1000, Ljubljana, Slovenia
    307 rdf:type schema:Organization
     




    Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


    ...