Characterization of Drug Particle Surface Energetics and Young’s Modulus by Atomic Force Microscopy and Inverse Gas Chromatography View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

2005-07

AUTHORS

Michael Davies, Anne Brindley, Xinyong Chen, Maria Marlow, Stephen W. Doughty, Ian Shrubb, Clive J. Roberts

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Particulate interactions are dominated by aspects such as surface topography, exposed chemical moieties, environmental conditions, and thermodynamic properties such as surface free energy (gamma). The absolute value and relative magnitude of surface energies of a drug and excipients within a formulation can significantly influence manufacture, processing, and use. This study utilizes and compares the potentially complementary analytical techniques of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and inverse gas chromatography (IGC) in the quantitative determination of the surface energy of drug (budesonide) particles (micronized and unmilled) relevant to inhaled delivery. In addition, the study investigates with AFM another important parameter in determining material interactions, the local mechanical properties of the drug. METHODS: AFM was used to acquire force of adhesion (Fadh) and related work of adhesion (WA) and surface energy values between individual mironized drug particles and also model substrates (graphite and mica). In addition, AFM probes were used to interrogate the surface energy of unmilled drug particles. Measurement with AFM probes also yielded localized measurements of Young's modulus for the unmilled drug. IGC was also used to probe the surface characteristics of the bulk drug material. RESULTS: The average values for surface energies acquired from budesonide micronized particle interactions with graphite, mica, and drug particles of the same substance were found to range from 35 to 175, 5 to 40, and 10 to 32 mJ m(-2), respectively. The unmilled material displayed a range of values of 39-88 mJ m(-2) with an average of 60 mJ m(-2). The IGC result for the surface energy of the micronized material was 68.47 +/- 1.60 mJ m(-2). The variability in surface energy from AFM, a feature particularly apparent for the micronized material was attributed to two factors, intrinsic material variations within a single particle and assumptions present within the contact mechanics model used. Here we provide a detailed description of these factors to go some way to rationalize the results. The Young's modulus of the unmilled drug was determined to be approximately 10 GPa. CONCLUSION: The range of determined surface energies between the AFM measurement on graphite, mica, and the drug is proposed to reflect the different chemistries displayed by the drug at the single particle level. The maximum values of these ranges can be related to the sites most likely to be involved in adhesion. AFM and IGC yield surface energy estimates in approximate agreement, but clearly are interrogating surfaces in different fashions. This raises questions as to the nature of the measurement being made by these approaches and to the most appropriate time to use these methods in terms of a direct relation to formulation design, manufacture, and drug delivery. Finally, we demonstrate a novel method for assessing the Young's modulus of a drug from a single particle. More... »

PAGES

1158-1166

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s11095-005-5647-z

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11095-005-5647-z

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040148796

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16028017


Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

[
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "about": [
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/0306", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Physical Chemistry (incl. Structural)", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/03", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Chemical Sciences", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Administration, Inhalation", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Budesonide", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Chemistry, Pharmaceutical", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Chromatography, Gas", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Drug Compounding", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Microscopy, Atomic Force", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Particle Size", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Powders", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Surface Properties", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }
    ], 
    "author": [
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "University of Nottingham", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.4563.4", 
          "name": [
            "Laboratory of Biophysics and Surface Analysis, School of Pharmacy, The University of Nottingham, NG7 2RD, Nottingham, UK"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Davies", 
        "givenName": "Michael", 
        "id": "sg:person.0616200474.45", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0616200474.45"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "AstraZeneca (United Kingdom)", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.417815.e", 
          "name": [
            "AstraZeneca R&D Charnwood, Pharmaceutical & Analytical R&D, LE11 5RH, Loughborough, UK"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Brindley", 
        "givenName": "Anne", 
        "id": "sg:person.01176744410.21", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01176744410.21"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "University of Nottingham", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.4563.4", 
          "name": [
            "Laboratory of Biophysics and Surface Analysis, School of Pharmacy, The University of Nottingham, NG7 2RD, Nottingham, UK"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Chen", 
        "givenName": "Xinyong", 
        "id": "sg:person.01047234370.70", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01047234370.70"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "AstraZeneca (United Kingdom)", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.417815.e", 
          "name": [
            "AstraZeneca R&D Charnwood, Pharmaceutical & Analytical R&D, LE11 5RH, Loughborough, UK"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Marlow", 
        "givenName": "Maria", 
        "id": "sg:person.01061222421.70", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01061222421.70"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "University of Nottingham", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.4563.4", 
          "name": [
            "Laboratory of Biophysics and Surface Analysis, School of Pharmacy, The University of Nottingham, NG7 2RD, Nottingham, UK"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Doughty", 
        "givenName": "Stephen W.", 
        "id": "sg:person.01043102653.05", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01043102653.05"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "AstraZeneca (United Kingdom)", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.417815.e", 
          "name": [
            "AstraZeneca R&D Charnwood, Pharmaceutical & Analytical R&D, LE11 5RH, Loughborough, UK"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Shrubb", 
        "givenName": "Ian", 
        "id": "sg:person.0633002616.01", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0633002616.01"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "University of Nottingham", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.4563.4", 
          "name": [
            "Laboratory of Biophysics and Surface Analysis, School of Pharmacy, The University of Nottingham, NG7 2RD, Nottingham, UK"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Roberts", 
        "givenName": "Clive J.", 
        "id": "sg:person.01035336303.18", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01035336303.18"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }
    ], 
    "citation": [
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0169-409x(97)00510-3", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000312427"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1023/a:1022684911383", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001396379", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1022684911383"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0032-5910(92)80072-5", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001781094"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-5173(00)00541-x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001926774"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-5173(98)00179-3", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009746013"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0032-5910(00)00373-9", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010048365"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00564.2003", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012099863"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1006/jcis.2001.8126", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012911403"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-3495(00)76614-8", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014906962"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.56.930", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015754186"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.56.930", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015754186"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2004.05.042", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016645302"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0143-7496(03)00068-x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017840941"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0143-7496(03)00068-x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017840941"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s003390051266", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018471795", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s003390051266"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1023/b:pham.0000036918.79205.4b", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019106797", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1023/b:pham.0000036918.79205.4b"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-5173(01)00687-1", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020678003"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1163/156856195x00897", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022957513"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-5173(90)90090-q", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023425537"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-5173(90)90090-q", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023425537"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1163/156856102760136436", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023768994"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0927-7757(99)00212-5", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024727612"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultramic.2003.11.012", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025673746"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.susc.2004.03.054", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026438778"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0032-5910(02)00234-6", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028947214"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0032-5910(02)00234-6", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028947214"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-5173(02)00055-8", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029179446"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1023/a:1013103521464", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029384255", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1013103521464"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s1461-5347(99)00227-8", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032218925"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0032-5910(91)80176-j", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032425598"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1179/096797899680327", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033028848"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1163/156856194x00744", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035020212"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-3495(91)82180-4", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035845699"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-5173(96)04619-4", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036088416"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.10250", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036561696"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.10250", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036561696"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1107/s0567740878009966", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036626911"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0731-7085(00)00523-9", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036803132"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-5173(99)00134-9", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037551425"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0040-6031(01)00669-4", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038353073"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1134/1.1611237", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040745117", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1134/1.1611237"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.10060", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040866017"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0032-5910(92)85033-r", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041946678"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0928-0987(99)00063-9", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044299817"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0032-5910(01)00386-2", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048218968"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1098/rspa.1971.0141", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051008549"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0021-9797(02)00238-2", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051243823"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0021-9797(02)00238-2", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051243823"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-5173(01)00913-9", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053034551"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-7158.1985.tb05094.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053340684"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/ac991198c", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055077504"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/ac991198c", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055077504"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/la00043a024", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1056139099"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/la026515g", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1056144831"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/la026515g", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1056144831"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/la9504220", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1056166747"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/la9504220", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1056166747"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1063/1.113020", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1057660573"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1143970", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1057671893"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1116/1.589138", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062199184"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/bk-1989-0391.ch014", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1089372054"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1142/p095", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1098871135"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }
    ], 
    "datePublished": "2005-07", 
    "datePublishedReg": "2005-07-01", 
    "description": "PURPOSE: Particulate interactions are dominated by aspects such as surface topography, exposed chemical moieties, environmental conditions, and thermodynamic properties such as surface free energy (gamma). The absolute value and relative magnitude of surface energies of a drug and excipients within a formulation can significantly influence manufacture, processing, and use. This study utilizes and compares the potentially complementary analytical techniques of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and inverse gas chromatography (IGC) in the quantitative determination of the surface energy of drug (budesonide) particles (micronized and unmilled) relevant to inhaled delivery. In addition, the study investigates with AFM another important parameter in determining material interactions, the local mechanical properties of the drug.\nMETHODS: AFM was used to acquire force of adhesion (Fadh) and related work of adhesion (WA) and surface energy values between individual mironized drug particles and also model substrates (graphite and mica). In addition, AFM probes were used to interrogate the surface energy of unmilled drug particles. Measurement with AFM probes also yielded localized measurements of Young's modulus for the unmilled drug. IGC was also used to probe the surface characteristics of the bulk drug material.\nRESULTS: The average values for surface energies acquired from budesonide micronized particle interactions with graphite, mica, and drug particles of the same substance were found to range from 35 to 175, 5 to 40, and 10 to 32 mJ m(-2), respectively. The unmilled material displayed a range of values of 39-88 mJ m(-2) with an average of 60 mJ m(-2). The IGC result for the surface energy of the micronized material was 68.47 +/- 1.60 mJ m(-2). The variability in surface energy from AFM, a feature particularly apparent for the micronized material was attributed to two factors, intrinsic material variations within a single particle and assumptions present within the contact mechanics model used. Here we provide a detailed description of these factors to go some way to rationalize the results. The Young's modulus of the unmilled drug was determined to be approximately 10 GPa.\nCONCLUSION: The range of determined surface energies between the AFM measurement on graphite, mica, and the drug is proposed to reflect the different chemistries displayed by the drug at the single particle level. The maximum values of these ranges can be related to the sites most likely to be involved in adhesion. AFM and IGC yield surface energy estimates in approximate agreement, but clearly are interrogating surfaces in different fashions. This raises questions as to the nature of the measurement being made by these approaches and to the most appropriate time to use these methods in terms of a direct relation to formulation design, manufacture, and drug delivery. Finally, we demonstrate a novel method for assessing the Young's modulus of a drug from a single particle.", 
    "genre": "research_article", 
    "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s11095-005-5647-z", 
    "inLanguage": [
      "en"
    ], 
    "isAccessibleForFree": false, 
    "isPartOf": [
      {
        "id": "sg:journal.1094644", 
        "issn": [
          "0724-8741", 
          "1573-904X"
        ], 
        "name": "Pharmaceutical Research", 
        "type": "Periodical"
      }, 
      {
        "issueNumber": "7", 
        "type": "PublicationIssue"
      }, 
      {
        "type": "PublicationVolume", 
        "volumeNumber": "22"
      }
    ], 
    "name": "Characterization of Drug Particle Surface Energetics and Young\u2019s Modulus by Atomic Force Microscopy and Inverse Gas Chromatography", 
    "pagination": "1158-1166", 
    "productId": [
      {
        "name": "readcube_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "bf413af83e78d6ba202d7e6feacb086980297ba9d3b5ed02d7b29a41e2230642"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "pubmed_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "16028017"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "nlm_unique_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "8406521"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "doi", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "10.1007/s11095-005-5647-z"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "dimensions_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "pub.1040148796"
        ]
      }
    ], 
    "sameAs": [
      "https://doi.org/10.1007/s11095-005-5647-z", 
      "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040148796"
    ], 
    "sdDataset": "articles", 
    "sdDatePublished": "2019-04-11T11:03", 
    "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
    "sdPublisher": {
      "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
      "type": "Organization"
    }, 
    "sdSource": "s3://com-uberresearch-data-dimensions-target-20181106-alternative/cleanup/v134/2549eaecd7973599484d7c17b260dba0a4ecb94b/merge/v9/a6c9fde33151104705d4d7ff012ea9563521a3ce/jats-lookup/v90/0000000352_0000000352/records_60357_00000000.jsonl", 
    "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
    "url": "http://link.springer.com/10.1007%2Fs11095-005-5647-z"
  }
]
 

Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s11095-005-5647-z'

N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s11095-005-5647-z'

Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s11095-005-5647-z'

RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s11095-005-5647-z'


 

This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

314 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      91 URIs      30 LITERALS      18 BLANK NODES

Subject Predicate Object
1 sg:pub.10.1007/s11095-005-5647-z schema:about N28ad19a11a2c4172adbc3ef47562e60f
2 N35e44b2ae7974da6931f3ce8d41ead2e
3 N427d543003af49359496d2d29532651e
4 N4b5a850002944c3783c4349848971671
5 Naeb28752bed2470294e445667c4a7dc2
6 Nb12b8072a9d2418aa15868a04a24db0b
7 Nbbcb28b3ccf54fdaae5cc0f0db6c5546
8 Ncbd20c2951654fe89034984e79d96600
9 Ndd814e9454914e6d8b610c5398725026
10 anzsrc-for:03
11 anzsrc-for:0306
12 schema:author N45412fd497924f0cb2566266028229de
13 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1007/s003390051266
14 sg:pub.10.1023/a:1013103521464
15 sg:pub.10.1023/a:1022684911383
16 sg:pub.10.1023/b:pham.0000036918.79205.4b
17 sg:pub.10.1134/1.1611237
18 https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.10060
19 https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.10250
20 https://doi.org/10.1006/jcis.2001.8126
21 https://doi.org/10.1016/0032-5910(91)80176-j
22 https://doi.org/10.1016/0032-5910(92)80072-5
23 https://doi.org/10.1016/0032-5910(92)85033-r
24 https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-5173(90)90090-q
25 https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-5173(96)04619-4
26 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2004.05.042
27 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.susc.2004.03.054
28 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultramic.2003.11.012
29 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-3495(00)76614-8
30 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-3495(91)82180-4
31 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0021-9797(02)00238-2
32 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0032-5910(00)00373-9
33 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0032-5910(01)00386-2
34 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0032-5910(02)00234-6
35 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0040-6031(01)00669-4
36 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0143-7496(03)00068-x
37 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0169-409x(97)00510-3
38 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-5173(00)00541-x
39 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-5173(01)00687-1
40 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-5173(01)00913-9
41 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-5173(02)00055-8
42 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-5173(98)00179-3
43 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-5173(99)00134-9
44 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0731-7085(00)00523-9
45 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0927-7757(99)00212-5
46 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0928-0987(99)00063-9
47 https://doi.org/10.1016/s1461-5347(99)00227-8
48 https://doi.org/10.1021/ac991198c
49 https://doi.org/10.1021/bk-1989-0391.ch014
50 https://doi.org/10.1021/la00043a024
51 https://doi.org/10.1021/la026515g
52 https://doi.org/10.1021/la9504220
53 https://doi.org/10.1063/1.113020
54 https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1143970
55 https://doi.org/10.1098/rspa.1971.0141
56 https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.56.930
57 https://doi.org/10.1107/s0567740878009966
58 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-7158.1985.tb05094.x
59 https://doi.org/10.1116/1.589138
60 https://doi.org/10.1142/p095
61 https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00564.2003
62 https://doi.org/10.1163/156856102760136436
63 https://doi.org/10.1163/156856194x00744
64 https://doi.org/10.1163/156856195x00897
65 https://doi.org/10.1179/096797899680327
66 schema:datePublished 2005-07
67 schema:datePublishedReg 2005-07-01
68 schema:description PURPOSE: Particulate interactions are dominated by aspects such as surface topography, exposed chemical moieties, environmental conditions, and thermodynamic properties such as surface free energy (gamma). The absolute value and relative magnitude of surface energies of a drug and excipients within a formulation can significantly influence manufacture, processing, and use. This study utilizes and compares the potentially complementary analytical techniques of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and inverse gas chromatography (IGC) in the quantitative determination of the surface energy of drug (budesonide) particles (micronized and unmilled) relevant to inhaled delivery. In addition, the study investigates with AFM another important parameter in determining material interactions, the local mechanical properties of the drug. METHODS: AFM was used to acquire force of adhesion (Fadh) and related work of adhesion (WA) and surface energy values between individual mironized drug particles and also model substrates (graphite and mica). In addition, AFM probes were used to interrogate the surface energy of unmilled drug particles. Measurement with AFM probes also yielded localized measurements of Young's modulus for the unmilled drug. IGC was also used to probe the surface characteristics of the bulk drug material. RESULTS: The average values for surface energies acquired from budesonide micronized particle interactions with graphite, mica, and drug particles of the same substance were found to range from 35 to 175, 5 to 40, and 10 to 32 mJ m(-2), respectively. The unmilled material displayed a range of values of 39-88 mJ m(-2) with an average of 60 mJ m(-2). The IGC result for the surface energy of the micronized material was 68.47 +/- 1.60 mJ m(-2). The variability in surface energy from AFM, a feature particularly apparent for the micronized material was attributed to two factors, intrinsic material variations within a single particle and assumptions present within the contact mechanics model used. Here we provide a detailed description of these factors to go some way to rationalize the results. The Young's modulus of the unmilled drug was determined to be approximately 10 GPa. CONCLUSION: The range of determined surface energies between the AFM measurement on graphite, mica, and the drug is proposed to reflect the different chemistries displayed by the drug at the single particle level. The maximum values of these ranges can be related to the sites most likely to be involved in adhesion. AFM and IGC yield surface energy estimates in approximate agreement, but clearly are interrogating surfaces in different fashions. This raises questions as to the nature of the measurement being made by these approaches and to the most appropriate time to use these methods in terms of a direct relation to formulation design, manufacture, and drug delivery. Finally, we demonstrate a novel method for assessing the Young's modulus of a drug from a single particle.
69 schema:genre research_article
70 schema:inLanguage en
71 schema:isAccessibleForFree false
72 schema:isPartOf N860c3e5c50a4468ca78d43ae55559bfc
73 Nf3fdcd44ac684e9dac5526678a719cc6
74 sg:journal.1094644
75 schema:name Characterization of Drug Particle Surface Energetics and Young’s Modulus by Atomic Force Microscopy and Inverse Gas Chromatography
76 schema:pagination 1158-1166
77 schema:productId N353212851349461fb764d982e7922d87
78 N66bdcdf325ea4333a9ff0be2eb2f4562
79 N6b2c485eb600455e8a8e42759ca97f9a
80 N9993624bfab34ca0a72652d7f0facf0d
81 Nad91681c34364ddb87a337aadd6fbce3
82 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040148796
83 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11095-005-5647-z
84 schema:sdDatePublished 2019-04-11T11:03
85 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
86 schema:sdPublisher Ne98899b53ff44246897e929f18dd4ed3
87 schema:url http://link.springer.com/10.1007%2Fs11095-005-5647-z
88 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
89 sgo:sdDataset articles
90 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
91 N234fdc515afc487796b46999ad5281c3 rdf:first sg:person.01176744410.21
92 rdf:rest N61a5afbecb694464a212d1fa69c9b5d0
93 N28ad19a11a2c4172adbc3ef47562e60f schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
94 schema:name Chemistry, Pharmaceutical
95 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
96 N353212851349461fb764d982e7922d87 schema:name readcube_id
97 schema:value bf413af83e78d6ba202d7e6feacb086980297ba9d3b5ed02d7b29a41e2230642
98 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
99 N35e44b2ae7974da6931f3ce8d41ead2e schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
100 schema:name Drug Compounding
101 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
102 N427d543003af49359496d2d29532651e schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
103 schema:name Surface Properties
104 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
105 N45412fd497924f0cb2566266028229de rdf:first sg:person.0616200474.45
106 rdf:rest N234fdc515afc487796b46999ad5281c3
107 N4b5a850002944c3783c4349848971671 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
108 schema:name Administration, Inhalation
109 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
110 N61a5afbecb694464a212d1fa69c9b5d0 rdf:first sg:person.01047234370.70
111 rdf:rest Nb5015cbd17484d49b693885cb66d8b11
112 N66bdcdf325ea4333a9ff0be2eb2f4562 schema:name doi
113 schema:value 10.1007/s11095-005-5647-z
114 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
115 N6b2c485eb600455e8a8e42759ca97f9a schema:name dimensions_id
116 schema:value pub.1040148796
117 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
118 N7a9f7dabb3574e60b108630c879fcb37 rdf:first sg:person.01035336303.18
119 rdf:rest rdf:nil
120 N860c3e5c50a4468ca78d43ae55559bfc schema:volumeNumber 22
121 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
122 N936ef6d70d564eb881f728d132aa60e1 rdf:first sg:person.0633002616.01
123 rdf:rest N7a9f7dabb3574e60b108630c879fcb37
124 N9993624bfab34ca0a72652d7f0facf0d schema:name pubmed_id
125 schema:value 16028017
126 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
127 Nad91681c34364ddb87a337aadd6fbce3 schema:name nlm_unique_id
128 schema:value 8406521
129 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
130 Naeb28752bed2470294e445667c4a7dc2 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
131 schema:name Chromatography, Gas
132 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
133 Nb12b8072a9d2418aa15868a04a24db0b schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
134 schema:name Particle Size
135 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
136 Nb5015cbd17484d49b693885cb66d8b11 rdf:first sg:person.01061222421.70
137 rdf:rest Nebf1455bc7224a4da54293a8a81fee65
138 Nbbcb28b3ccf54fdaae5cc0f0db6c5546 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
139 schema:name Microscopy, Atomic Force
140 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
141 Ncbd20c2951654fe89034984e79d96600 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
142 schema:name Budesonide
143 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
144 Ndd814e9454914e6d8b610c5398725026 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
145 schema:name Powders
146 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
147 Ne98899b53ff44246897e929f18dd4ed3 schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
148 rdf:type schema:Organization
149 Nebf1455bc7224a4da54293a8a81fee65 rdf:first sg:person.01043102653.05
150 rdf:rest N936ef6d70d564eb881f728d132aa60e1
151 Nf3fdcd44ac684e9dac5526678a719cc6 schema:issueNumber 7
152 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
153 anzsrc-for:03 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
154 schema:name Chemical Sciences
155 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
156 anzsrc-for:0306 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
157 schema:name Physical Chemistry (incl. Structural)
158 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
159 sg:journal.1094644 schema:issn 0724-8741
160 1573-904X
161 schema:name Pharmaceutical Research
162 rdf:type schema:Periodical
163 sg:person.01035336303.18 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.4563.4
164 schema:familyName Roberts
165 schema:givenName Clive J.
166 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01035336303.18
167 rdf:type schema:Person
168 sg:person.01043102653.05 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.4563.4
169 schema:familyName Doughty
170 schema:givenName Stephen W.
171 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01043102653.05
172 rdf:type schema:Person
173 sg:person.01047234370.70 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.4563.4
174 schema:familyName Chen
175 schema:givenName Xinyong
176 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01047234370.70
177 rdf:type schema:Person
178 sg:person.01061222421.70 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.417815.e
179 schema:familyName Marlow
180 schema:givenName Maria
181 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01061222421.70
182 rdf:type schema:Person
183 sg:person.01176744410.21 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.417815.e
184 schema:familyName Brindley
185 schema:givenName Anne
186 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01176744410.21
187 rdf:type schema:Person
188 sg:person.0616200474.45 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.4563.4
189 schema:familyName Davies
190 schema:givenName Michael
191 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0616200474.45
192 rdf:type schema:Person
193 sg:person.0633002616.01 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.417815.e
194 schema:familyName Shrubb
195 schema:givenName Ian
196 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0633002616.01
197 rdf:type schema:Person
198 sg:pub.10.1007/s003390051266 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018471795
199 https://doi.org/10.1007/s003390051266
200 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
201 sg:pub.10.1023/a:1013103521464 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029384255
202 https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1013103521464
203 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
204 sg:pub.10.1023/a:1022684911383 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001396379
205 https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1022684911383
206 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
207 sg:pub.10.1023/b:pham.0000036918.79205.4b schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019106797
208 https://doi.org/10.1023/b:pham.0000036918.79205.4b
209 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
210 sg:pub.10.1134/1.1611237 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040745117
211 https://doi.org/10.1134/1.1611237
212 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
213 https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.10060 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040866017
214 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
215 https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.10250 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036561696
216 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
217 https://doi.org/10.1006/jcis.2001.8126 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012911403
218 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
219 https://doi.org/10.1016/0032-5910(91)80176-j schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032425598
220 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
221 https://doi.org/10.1016/0032-5910(92)80072-5 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001781094
222 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
223 https://doi.org/10.1016/0032-5910(92)85033-r schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041946678
224 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
225 https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-5173(90)90090-q schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023425537
226 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
227 https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-5173(96)04619-4 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036088416
228 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
229 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2004.05.042 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016645302
230 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
231 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.susc.2004.03.054 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026438778
232 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
233 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultramic.2003.11.012 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025673746
234 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
235 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-3495(00)76614-8 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014906962
236 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
237 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-3495(91)82180-4 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035845699
238 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
239 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0021-9797(02)00238-2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051243823
240 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
241 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0032-5910(00)00373-9 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010048365
242 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
243 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0032-5910(01)00386-2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048218968
244 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
245 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0032-5910(02)00234-6 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028947214
246 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
247 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0040-6031(01)00669-4 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038353073
248 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
249 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0143-7496(03)00068-x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017840941
250 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
251 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0169-409x(97)00510-3 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000312427
252 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
253 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-5173(00)00541-x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001926774
254 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
255 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-5173(01)00687-1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020678003
256 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
257 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-5173(01)00913-9 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053034551
258 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
259 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-5173(02)00055-8 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029179446
260 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
261 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-5173(98)00179-3 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009746013
262 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
263 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-5173(99)00134-9 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037551425
264 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
265 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0731-7085(00)00523-9 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036803132
266 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
267 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0927-7757(99)00212-5 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024727612
268 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
269 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0928-0987(99)00063-9 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044299817
270 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
271 https://doi.org/10.1016/s1461-5347(99)00227-8 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032218925
272 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
273 https://doi.org/10.1021/ac991198c schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055077504
274 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
275 https://doi.org/10.1021/bk-1989-0391.ch014 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1089372054
276 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
277 https://doi.org/10.1021/la00043a024 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1056139099
278 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
279 https://doi.org/10.1021/la026515g schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1056144831
280 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
281 https://doi.org/10.1021/la9504220 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1056166747
282 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
283 https://doi.org/10.1063/1.113020 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1057660573
284 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
285 https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1143970 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1057671893
286 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
287 https://doi.org/10.1098/rspa.1971.0141 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051008549
288 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
289 https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.56.930 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015754186
290 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
291 https://doi.org/10.1107/s0567740878009966 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036626911
292 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
293 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-7158.1985.tb05094.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053340684
294 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
295 https://doi.org/10.1116/1.589138 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062199184
296 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
297 https://doi.org/10.1142/p095 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1098871135
298 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
299 https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00564.2003 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012099863
300 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
301 https://doi.org/10.1163/156856102760136436 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023768994
302 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
303 https://doi.org/10.1163/156856194x00744 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035020212
304 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
305 https://doi.org/10.1163/156856195x00897 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022957513
306 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
307 https://doi.org/10.1179/096797899680327 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033028848
308 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
309 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.417815.e schema:alternateName AstraZeneca (United Kingdom)
310 schema:name AstraZeneca R&D Charnwood, Pharmaceutical & Analytical R&D, LE11 5RH, Loughborough, UK
311 rdf:type schema:Organization
312 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.4563.4 schema:alternateName University of Nottingham
313 schema:name Laboratory of Biophysics and Surface Analysis, School of Pharmacy, The University of Nottingham, NG7 2RD, Nottingham, UK
314 rdf:type schema:Organization
 




Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


...