Multifactorial Effects on Different Types of Brain Cells Contribute to Ammonia Toxicity View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

2017-03

AUTHORS

Leif Hertz, Dan Song, Liang Peng, Ye Chen

ABSTRACT

Effects of ammonia on astrocytes play a major role in hepatic encephalopathy, acute liver failure and other diseases caused by increased arterial ammonia concentrations (e.g., inborn errors of metabolism, drug or mushroom poisoning). There is a direct correlation between arterial ammonia concentration, brain ammonia level and disease severity. However, the pathophysiology of hyperammonemic diseases is disputed. One long recognized factor is that increased brain ammonia triggers its own detoxification by glutamine formation from glutamate. This is an astrocytic process due to the selective expression of the glutamine synthetase in astrocytes. A possible deleterious effect of the resulting increase in glutamine concentration has repeatedly been discussed and is supported by improvement of some pathologic effects by GS inhibition. However, this procedure also inhibits a large part of astrocytic energy metabolism and may prevent astrocytes from responding to pathogenic factors. A decrease of the already low glutamate concentration in astrocytes due to increased synthesis of glutamine inhibits the malate-aspartate shuttle and energy metabolism. A more recently described pathogenic factor is the resemblance between NH4+ and K+ in their effects on the Na+,K+-ATPase and the Na+,K+, 2 Cl- and water transporter NKCC1. Stimulation of the Na+,K+-ATPase driven NKCC1 in both astrocytes and endothelial cells is essential for the development of brain edema. Na+,K+-ATPase stimulation also activates production of endogenous ouabains. This leads to oxidative and nitrosative damage and sensitizes NKCC1. Administration of ouabain antagonists may accordingly have therapeutic potential in hyperammonemic diseases. More... »

PAGES

721-736

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  • Identifiers

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    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s11064-016-1966-1

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-016-1966-1

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002329878

    PUBMED

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27286679


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