Is there In Vivo Evidence for Amino Acid Shuttles Carrying Ammonia from Neurons to Astrocytes? View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2012-11

AUTHORS

Douglas L. Rothman, Henk M. De Feyter, Paul K. Maciejewski, Kevin L. Behar

ABSTRACT

The high in vivo flux of the glutamate/glutamine cycle puts a strong demand on the return of ammonia released by phosphate activated glutaminase from the neurons to the astrocytes in order to maintain nitrogen balance. In this paper we review several amino acid shuttles that have been proposed for balancing the nitrogen flows between neurons and astrocytes in the glutamate/glutamine cycle. All of these cycles depend on the directionality of glutamate dehydrogenase, catalyzing reductive glutamate synthesis (forward reaction) in the neuron in order to capture the ammonia released by phosphate activated glutaminase, while catalyzing oxidative deamination of glutamate (reverse reaction) in the astrocytes to release ammonia for glutamine synthesis. Reanalysis of results from in vivo experiments using (13)N and (15)N labeled ammonia and (15)N leucine in rats suggests that the maximum flux of the alanine/lactate or branched chain amino acid/branched chain amino acid transaminase shuttles between neurons and astrocytes are approximately 3-5 times lower than would be required to account for the ammonia transfer from neurons to astrocytes needed for glutamine synthesis (amide nitrogen) to sustain the glutamate/glutamine cycle. However, in the rat brain both the total ammonia fixation rate by glutamate dehydrogenase and the total branched chain amino acid transaminase activity are sufficient to support a branched chain amino acid/branched chain keto acid shuttle, as proposed by Hutson and coworkers, which would support the de novo synthesis of glutamine in the astrocyte to replace the ~20 % of neurotransmitter glutamate that is oxidized. A higher fraction of the nitrogen needs of total glutamate neurotransmitter cycling could be supported by hybrid cycles in which glutamate and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates act as a nitrogen shuttle. A limitation of all in vivo studies in animals conducted to date is that none have shown transfer of nitrogen for glutamine amide synthesis, either as free ammonia or via an amino acid from the neurons to the astrocytes. Future work will be needed, perhaps using methods for selectively labeling nitrogen in neurons, to conclusively establish the rate of amino acid nitrogen shuttles in vivo and their coupling to the glutamate/glutamine cycle. More... »

PAGES

2597-2612

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  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s11064-012-0898-7

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-012-0898-7

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038607098

    PUBMED

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23104556


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