Nicotine: Alcohol Reward Interactions View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

2010-08

AUTHORS

A. Lajtha, H. Sershen

ABSTRACT

It is well established that the continued intake of drugs of abuse is reinforcing-that is repeated consumption increases preference. This has been shown in some studies to extend to other drugs of abuse; use of one increases preference for another. In particular, the present review deals with the interaction of nicotine and alcohol as it has been shown that smoking is a risk factor for alcoholism and alcohol use is a risk factor to become a smoker. The review discusses changes in the brain caused by chronic nicotine and chronic alcohol intake to approach the possible mechanisms by which one drug increases the preference for another. Chronic nicotine administration was shown to affect nicotine receptors in the brain, affecting not only receptor levels and distribution, but also receptor subunit composition, thus affecting affinity to nicotine. Other receptor systems are also affected among others catecholamine, glutamate, GABA levels and opiate and cannabinoid receptors. In addition to receptor systems and transmitters, there are endocrine, metabolic and neuropeptide changes as well induced by nicotine. Similarly chronic alcohol intake results in changes in the brain, in multiple receptors, transmitters and peptides as discussed in this overview and also illustrated in the tables. The changes are sex and age-dependent-some changes in males are different from those in females and in general adolescents are more sensitive to drug effects than adults. Although nicotine and alcohol interact-not all the changes induced by the combined intake of both are additive-some are opposing. These opposing effects include those on locomotion, acetylcholine metabolism, nicotine binding, opiate peptides, glutamate transporters and endocannabinoid content among others. The two compounds lower the negative withdrawal symptoms of each other which may contribute to the increase in preference, but the mechanism by which preference increases-most likely consists of multiple components that are not clear at the present time. As the details of induced changes of nicotine and alcohol differ, it is likely that the mechanisms of increasing nicotine preference may not be identical to that of increasing alcohol preference. Stimulation of preference of yet other drugs may again be different -representing one aspect of drug specificity of reward mechanisms. More... »

PAGES

1248-1258

References to SciGraph publications

  • 2001-05. Smoking Cessation in Women in CNS DRUGS
  • 2005-12. Plasticity of GABAA Receptors in Brains of Rats Treated with Chronic Intermittent Ethanol in NEUROCHEMICAL RESEARCH
  • 2010-06. Heterogeneity of Reward Mechanisms in NEUROCHEMICAL RESEARCH
  • 2007-09. Effects of chronic alcohol exposure on dopamine uptake in rat nucleus accumbens and caudate putamen in PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY
  • 2003-04. Effects of Sex Hormones, Forskolin, and Nicotine on Choline Acetyltransferase Activity in Human Isolated Placenta in NEUROCHEMICAL RESEARCH
  • 2009-10. Female rats display dose-dependent differences to the rewarding and aversive effects of nicotine in an age-, hormone-, and sex-dependent manner in PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY
  • 1997-09. Chronic Nicotine Enhances Basal and Nicotine-Induced Fos Immunoreactivity Preferentially in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex of the Rat in NEUROPSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY
  • 2009-06. Individual differences in responses to nicotine: tracking changes from adolescence to adulthood in ACTA PHARMACOLOGICA SINICA
  • 2007-02. Effect of direct infusion of acetaldehyde on dopamine and dopamine-derived salsolinol in the striatum of free-moving rats using a reverse microdialysis technique in ARCHIVES OF TOXICOLOGY
  • 2004-01. Neonatal ethanol exposure produces a hyperalgesia that extends into adolescence, and is associated with increased analgesic and rewarding properties of nicotine in rats in PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY
  • 2000-05. Mecamylamine prevents tolerance but enhances whole brain [3H]epibatidine binding in response to repeated nicotine administration in rats in PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY
  • 2009-12. Ethanol inhibits LPS-induced signaling and modulates cytokine production in peritoneal macrophages in vivo in a model for binge drinking in BMC IMMUNOLOGY
  • 2008-03. Chronic Nicotine Self-Administration Augments Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Adrenal Responses to Mild Acute Stress in NEUROPSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY
  • 2009-10. Differential contribution of genetic variation in multiple brain nicotinic cholinergic receptors to nicotine dependence: recent progress and emerging open questions in MOLECULAR PSYCHIATRY
  • 2007-05. Permanent, Sex-Selective Effects of Prenatal or Adolescent Nicotine Exposure, Separately or Sequentially, in Rat Brain Regions: Indices of Cholinergic and Serotonergic Synaptic Function, Cell Signaling, and Neural Cell Number and Size at 6 Months of Age in NEUROPSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY
  • 2008-02. Interactive effects of ethanol and nicotine on learning in C57BL/6J mice depend on both dose and duration of treatment in PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY
  • 1992-03. Effect of nicotine on extracellular levels of neurotransmitters assessed by microdialysis in various brain regions: Role of glutamic acid in NEUROCHEMICAL RESEARCH
  • 1988-08. Chronic ethanol or nicotine treatment results in partial cross-tolerance between these agents in PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY
  • 2005-04. The Effects of Cholinergic and Dopaminergic Antagonists on Nicotine-Induced Cerebral Neurotransmitter Changes in NEUROCHEMICAL RESEARCH
  • 1998-01. Acetylcholine receptors containing the β2 subunit are involved in the reinforcing properties of nicotine in NATURE
  • 2010-01. Neuroscience of alcoholism: molecular and cellular mechanisms in CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR LIFE SCIENCES
  • 2003-11. Short-Term Adolescent Nicotine Exposure has Immediate and Persistent Effects on Cholinergic Systems: Critical Periods, Patterns of Exposure, Dose Thresholds in NEUROPSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY
  • 2010-03. Age influences the effects of nicotine and monoamine oxidase inhibition on mood-related behaviors in rats in PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY
  • 2004-09. Nicotine-Induced Changes in Neurotransmitter Levels in Brain Areas Associated with Cognitive Function in NEUROCHEMICAL RESEARCH
  • 2010-01. Neurocircuitry of Addiction in NEUROPSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY
  • 2010-05. Convergent Evidence that Choline Acetyltransferase Gene Variation is Associated with Prospective Smoking Cessation and Nicotine Dependence in NEUROPSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY
  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s11064-010-0181-8

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-010-0181-8

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038856257

    PUBMED

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20499168


    Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
    Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

    JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

    TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

    [
      {
        "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
        "about": [
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/1109", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Neurosciences", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/11", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Medical and Health Sciences", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Age Factors", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Alcoholism", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Animals", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Brain", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Drug Interactions", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Ethanol", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Female", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Humans", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Male", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Neurotransmitter Agents", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Nicotine", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Nicotinic Agonists", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Receptors, Neurotransmitter", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Receptors, Nicotinic", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Reward", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Sex Factors", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Substance Withdrawal Syndrome", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Tobacco Use Disorder", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }
        ], 
        "author": [
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Nathan Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.250263.0", 
              "name": [
                "Nathan Kline Institute, Orangeburg, NY10962, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Lajtha", 
            "givenName": "A.", 
            "id": "sg:person.01203017617.82", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01203017617.82"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Nathan Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.250263.0", 
              "name": [
                "Nathan Kline Institute, Orangeburg, NY10962, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Sershen", 
            "givenName": "H.", 
            "id": "sg:person.01002303570.20", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01002303570.20"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }
        ], 
        "citation": [
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2008.01.021", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000248355"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0028-3908(02)00166-1", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000724805"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0028-3908(02)00166-1", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000724805"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf00966669", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001033840", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00966669"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2009.12.073", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001599102"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2002.tb04175.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001722059"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2007.06.002", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001814954"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.2006.00328.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001836007"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0741-8329(96)00116-4", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002492629"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1124/mol.106.033043", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003069271"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2009.04.005", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003503910"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1101/lm.975308", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003957345"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1124/jpet.104.067983", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004390428"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2010.02.008", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005536015"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1023/a:1022861020835", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005758836", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1022861020835"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1152/jn.90484.2008", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005811773"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1523/jneurosci.4237-05.2006", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006569025"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2008.03.028", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006691291"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-8993(01)02847-5", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006906249"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.1998.tb03611.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006915213"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1124/mol.105.018184", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007261804"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.1995.tb13248.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007691293"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2009.10.045", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009436434"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2003.08.024", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009806524"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2003.08.024", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009806524"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2005.04.022", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010055063"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bcp.2009.06.011", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010065329"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pharmthera.2007.06.011", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010227748"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2006.11.046", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010371782"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2008.03.056", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010463072"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/01.alc.0000128225.83916.40", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010897037"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/01.alc.0000128225.83916.40", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010897037"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/01.alc.0000128225.83916.40", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010897037"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1124/jpet.107.121228", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011186040"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1521-0391.2003.tb00492.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011303180"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1521-0391.2003.tb00492.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011303180"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.1996.tb01936.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011816470"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.1996.tb01936.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011816470"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.2009.01084.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012169339"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.2009.01084.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012169339"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/alcalc/agm057", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012352251"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-4159.2009.06301.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012480944"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-4159.2009.06301.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012480944"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pharmthera.2003.12.001", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012544442"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yfrne.2007.07.003", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012714843"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.2217/17455057.4.1.51", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013216492"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.2217/17455057.4.1.51", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013216492"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-8993(02)03174-8", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013638127"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0169-328x(97)00338-0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013801776"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2008.12.008", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014010117"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.euroneuro.2005.03.004", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014099502"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00213-007-0982-x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015050965", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-007-0982-x"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00213-007-0982-x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015050965", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-007-0982-x"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/npp.2009.110", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015586529", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/npp.2009.110"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/npp.2009.110", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015586529", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/npp.2009.110"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-8993(03)02674-x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015661574"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-9568.2004.03199.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015975469"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/01.alc.0000167743.96121.40", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016535290"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/01.alc.0000167743.96121.40", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016535290"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/01.alc.0000167743.96121.40", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016535290"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.regpep.2004.08.025", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017331664"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2008.05.023", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017516738"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0091-3057(00)00205-7", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018251256"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00213-007-0812-1", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018257526", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-007-0812-1"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00213-007-0812-1", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018257526", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-007-0812-1"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s11064-005-2689-x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018415635", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s11064-005-2689-x"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s11064-005-2689-x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018415635", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s11064-005-2689-x"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1016/s0893-133x(97)00040-7", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019836301", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0893-133x(97)00040-7"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1471-4159.2003.02296.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020224527"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00018-009-0135-y", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020461466", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00018-009-0135-y"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00018-009-0135-y", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020461466", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00018-009-0135-y"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00018-009-0135-y", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020461466", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00018-009-0135-y"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00204-006-0131-z", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020840783", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00204-006-0131-z"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00204-006-0131-z", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020840783", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00204-006-0131-z"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-8993(93)91104-z", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020890323"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-8993(93)91104-z", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020890323"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1746.1995.tb01349.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021198177"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/jnr.20329", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021489294"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1124/jpet.103.059790", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021592849"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0091-3057(97)00330-4", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021635344"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.2174/157015908783769662", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021864124"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00213-009-1607-3", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022182502", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-009-1607-3"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00213-009-1607-3", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022182502", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-009-1607-3"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2009.10.007", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022222668"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2005.02.016", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022341866"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2003.11.010", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022416849"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.euroneuro.2009.01.007", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024354423"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nlm.2008.01.006", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024562756"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/npp.2010.7", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024577306", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/npp.2010.7"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/npp.2010.7", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024577306", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/npp.2010.7"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-4159.2008.05514.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024682856"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2007.05.007", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024906169"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.alcohol.2009.09.027", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025328826"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0014-2999(03)01557-7", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025944374"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0014-2999(03)01557-7", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025944374"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-8993(02)03344-9", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026196207"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2004.10.006", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028225696"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bcp.2009.06.099", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028539825"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2007.07.077", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028845431"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/34413", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028979844", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/34413"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/34413", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028979844", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/34413"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.2008.00811.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029283386"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00213-003-1574-z", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029564715", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-003-1574-z"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2008.03.017", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029942469"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.2165/00023210-200115050-00005", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030554183", 
              "https://doi.org/10.2165/00023210-200115050-00005"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.2165/00023210-200115050-00005", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030554183", 
              "https://doi.org/10.2165/00023210-200115050-00005"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s11064-005-8836-6", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030645151", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s11064-005-8836-6"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s11064-005-8836-6", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030645151", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s11064-005-8836-6"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-4159.2008.05835.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031041559"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0969-8051(99)00078-5", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031724564"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/01.alc.0000139825.35438.a4", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031813234"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/01.alc.0000139825.35438.a4", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031813234"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0163-7258(01)00158-9", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032453891"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.1996.tb15232.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033140157"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-8993(98)00454-5", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033597573"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0014-2999(00)00003-0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033823071"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s11064-009-0096-4", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034336162", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s11064-009-0096-4"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s11064-009-0096-4", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034336162", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s11064-009-0096-4"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/sj.npp.1301231", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034566796", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.npp.1301231"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/sj.npp.1301231", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034566796", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.npp.1301231"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1124/jpet.104.072025", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034765071"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/sj.npp.1301466", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034810775", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.npp.1301466"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1023/b:nere.0000035814.45494.15", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035907555", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1023/b:nere.0000035814.45494.15"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0376-8716(95)01119-j", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036225503"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2004.08.010", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036785998"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-4159.2006.03751.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036937264"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/alcalc/agn001", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036951570"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0304-4165(02)00487-7", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037026953"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0304-4165(02)00487-7", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037026953"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pharmthera.2009.02.003", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037048049"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ntt.2006.10.012", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037746381"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/alcalc/agh111", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037827887"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2009.09.018", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037846937"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00213-009-1760-8", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038148368", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-009-1760-8"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00213-009-1760-8", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038148368", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-009-1760-8"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2007.11.074", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039715490"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2008.0089", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040106988"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1038/bjp.2008.30", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041066784"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2008.06.014", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041465799"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/01.alc.0000164376.69978.6b", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041677040"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/01.alc.0000164376.69978.6b", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041677040"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/01.alc.0000164376.69978.6b", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041677040"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/syn.20713", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041726824"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/syn.20713", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041726824"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddm283", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041836453"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2009.05.032", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042183914"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2009.07.099", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042248728"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ntt.2009.06.001", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042500781"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.2000.tb01964.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042586575"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.2000.tb01964.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042586575"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-8993(92)90120-x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043006343"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-8993(92)90120-x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043006343"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0741-8329(97)86147-2", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043345102"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf00172954", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043516528", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00172954"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf00172954", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043516528", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00172954"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1101/lm.70004", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044182833"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pbb.2009.07.004", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044317372"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2008.07.062", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044374227"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2007.05.039", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044931347"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2007.03.008", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045041396"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0306-4522(01)00042-2", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045733969"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pneurobio.2009.09.004", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045985107"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2008.03.001", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046903750"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s002130000401", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046918954", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s002130000401"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-8993(91)90810-i", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047352694"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-8993(91)90810-i", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047352694"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2172-10-49", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047605936", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2172-10-49"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/mp.2009.59", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048532244", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/mp.2009.59"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/mp.2009.59", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048532244", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/mp.2009.59"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/sj.npp.1300221", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048588209", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.npp.1300221"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/sj.npp.1300221", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048588209", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.npp.1300221"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/syn.10170", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048774233"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2006.08.066", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048917840"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2009.11.003", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050170088"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.2008.00745.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050892536"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/aps.2009.55", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053291928", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/aps.2009.55"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0024-3205(97)00285-3", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053456846"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-980076", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1057509464"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1210/endo.133.6.8243321", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1064278907"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1074535772", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1523/jneurosci.22-09-03338.2002", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1075041928"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1523/jneurosci.22-23-10172.2002", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1075195972"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077388265", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082644971", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082944284", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }
        ], 
        "datePublished": "2010-08", 
        "datePublishedReg": "2010-08-01", 
        "description": "It is well established that the continued intake of drugs of abuse is reinforcing-that is repeated consumption increases preference. This has been shown in some studies to extend to other drugs of abuse; use of one increases preference for another. In particular, the present review deals with the interaction of nicotine and alcohol as it has been shown that smoking is a risk factor for alcoholism and alcohol use is a risk factor to become a smoker. The review discusses changes in the brain caused by chronic nicotine and chronic alcohol intake to approach the possible mechanisms by which one drug increases the preference for another. Chronic nicotine administration was shown to affect nicotine receptors in the brain, affecting not only receptor levels and distribution, but also receptor subunit composition, thus affecting affinity to nicotine. Other receptor systems are also affected among others catecholamine, glutamate, GABA levels and opiate and cannabinoid receptors. In addition to receptor systems and transmitters, there are endocrine, metabolic and neuropeptide changes as well induced by nicotine. Similarly chronic alcohol intake results in changes in the brain, in multiple receptors, transmitters and peptides as discussed in this overview and also illustrated in the tables. The changes are sex and age-dependent-some changes in males are different from those in females and in general adolescents are more sensitive to drug effects than adults. Although nicotine and alcohol interact-not all the changes induced by the combined intake of both are additive-some are opposing. These opposing effects include those on locomotion, acetylcholine metabolism, nicotine binding, opiate peptides, glutamate transporters and endocannabinoid content among others. The two compounds lower the negative withdrawal symptoms of each other which may contribute to the increase in preference, but the mechanism by which preference increases-most likely consists of multiple components that are not clear at the present time. As the details of induced changes of nicotine and alcohol differ, it is likely that the mechanisms of increasing nicotine preference may not be identical to that of increasing alcohol preference. Stimulation of preference of yet other drugs may again be different -representing one aspect of drug specificity of reward mechanisms.", 
        "genre": "research_article", 
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s11064-010-0181-8", 
        "inLanguage": [
          "en"
        ], 
        "isAccessibleForFree": false, 
        "isPartOf": [
          {
            "id": "sg:journal.1085962", 
            "issn": [
              "0364-3190", 
              "1573-6903"
            ], 
            "name": "Neurochemical Research", 
            "type": "Periodical"
          }, 
          {
            "issueNumber": "8", 
            "type": "PublicationIssue"
          }, 
          {
            "type": "PublicationVolume", 
            "volumeNumber": "35"
          }
        ], 
        "name": "Nicotine: Alcohol Reward Interactions", 
        "pagination": "1248-1258", 
        "productId": [
          {
            "name": "readcube_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "b91802d42b61693c1b024adfd9cca05cacf9cbc1eadce91fc1cc2a9326e19269"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "pubmed_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "20499168"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "nlm_unique_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "7613461"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "doi", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "10.1007/s11064-010-0181-8"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "dimensions_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "pub.1038856257"
            ]
          }
        ], 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s11064-010-0181-8", 
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038856257"
        ], 
        "sdDataset": "articles", 
        "sdDatePublished": "2019-04-11T10:30", 
        "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
        "sdPublisher": {
          "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "sdSource": "s3://com-uberresearch-data-dimensions-target-20181106-alternative/cleanup/v134/2549eaecd7973599484d7c17b260dba0a4ecb94b/merge/v9/a6c9fde33151104705d4d7ff012ea9563521a3ce/jats-lookup/v90/0000000349_0000000349/records_113647_00000001.jsonl", 
        "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
        "url": "http://link.springer.com/10.1007%2Fs11064-010-0181-8"
      }
    ]
     

    Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

    HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

    JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s11064-010-0181-8'

    N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s11064-010-0181-8'

    Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

    curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s11064-010-0181-8'

    RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s11064-010-0181-8'


     

    This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

    608 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      193 URIs      39 LITERALS      27 BLANK NODES

    Subject Predicate Object
    1 sg:pub.10.1007/s11064-010-0181-8 schema:about N181e6ab69d834c9cbd53426b6d9a342a
    2 N20da484ba5464a15883e2771cd3defaf
    3 N377fc69ad8a845059bb13d1a8c12739a
    4 N4c34eda597914de7868a023333d1336d
    5 N514c92bad8194a168d03e12456550bf2
    6 N5eb738b78c5c452581ad61a1224d6162
    7 N63332e6b886f4af797e311d7564d424a
    8 N6a230277a2be4e4492177bf110a0792b
    9 N7476c2087f2645ebad4be69a935c0293
    10 N77c0f7d90751489bbad5ba617c6915ec
    11 N7e9550368d83492fb3f21b60cd4c14be
    12 N912eea8e82dc4a91974480eaf70b3504
    13 Na467869d073041ffa6e9c627a43b549b
    14 Nc62eee519dde4c6d9d2eda3cc87ccbca
    15 Ne98ec831479c48198795820427884172
    16 Nf0911737d53646508cbfd87cb66626bc
    17 Nf2abf968f27e42eca1d4345d0930cab4
    18 Nf90489877ae44de5bff0e209f2e0fe70
    19 anzsrc-for:11
    20 anzsrc-for:1109
    21 schema:author N1f34c76127ea43ae86d15853f5b53198
    22 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1007/bf00172954
    23 sg:pub.10.1007/bf00966669
    24 sg:pub.10.1007/s00018-009-0135-y
    25 sg:pub.10.1007/s00204-006-0131-z
    26 sg:pub.10.1007/s00213-003-1574-z
    27 sg:pub.10.1007/s00213-007-0812-1
    28 sg:pub.10.1007/s00213-007-0982-x
    29 sg:pub.10.1007/s00213-009-1607-3
    30 sg:pub.10.1007/s00213-009-1760-8
    31 sg:pub.10.1007/s002130000401
    32 sg:pub.10.1007/s11064-005-2689-x
    33 sg:pub.10.1007/s11064-005-8836-6
    34 sg:pub.10.1007/s11064-009-0096-4
    35 sg:pub.10.1016/s0893-133x(97)00040-7
    36 sg:pub.10.1023/a:1022861020835
    37 sg:pub.10.1023/b:nere.0000035814.45494.15
    38 sg:pub.10.1038/34413
    39 sg:pub.10.1038/aps.2009.55
    40 sg:pub.10.1038/mp.2009.59
    41 sg:pub.10.1038/npp.2009.110
    42 sg:pub.10.1038/npp.2010.7
    43 sg:pub.10.1038/sj.npp.1300221
    44 sg:pub.10.1038/sj.npp.1301231
    45 sg:pub.10.1038/sj.npp.1301466
    46 sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2172-10-49
    47 sg:pub.10.2165/00023210-200115050-00005
    48 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1074535772
    49 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077388265
    50 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082644971
    51 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082944284
    52 https://doi.org/10.1002/jnr.20329
    53 https://doi.org/10.1002/syn.10170
    54 https://doi.org/10.1002/syn.20713
    55 https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-8993(91)90810-i
    56 https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-8993(92)90120-x
    57 https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-8993(93)91104-z
    58 https://doi.org/10.1016/0376-8716(95)01119-j
    59 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.alcohol.2009.09.027
    60 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2009.09.018
    61 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bcp.2009.06.011
    62 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bcp.2009.06.099
    63 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2003.08.024
    64 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2006.11.046
    65 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2007.07.077
    66 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2008.03.056
    67 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2008.07.062
    68 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2009.07.099
    69 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2007.05.007
    70 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2008.03.001
    71 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2008.03.017
    72 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2009.04.005
    73 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2009.11.003
    74 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2010.02.008
    75 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2008.06.014
    76 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2008.03.028
    77 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.euroneuro.2005.03.004
    78 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.euroneuro.2009.01.007
    79 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2008.12.008
    80 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2009.10.007
    81 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2003.11.010
    82 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2005.02.016
    83 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2007.06.002
    84 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2007.11.074
    85 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2008.01.021
    86 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2008.05.023
    87 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2005.04.022
    88 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2004.08.010
    89 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2004.10.006
    90 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2006.08.066
    91 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2007.03.008
    92 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2009.05.032
    93 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2009.10.045
    94 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2009.12.073
    95 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nlm.2008.01.006
    96 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ntt.2006.10.012
    97 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ntt.2009.06.001
    98 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pbb.2009.07.004
    99 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pharmthera.2003.12.001
    100 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pharmthera.2007.06.011
    101 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pharmthera.2009.02.003
    102 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2007.05.039
    103 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pneurobio.2009.09.004
    104 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.regpep.2004.08.025
    105 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yfrne.2007.07.003
    106 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-8993(01)02847-5
    107 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-8993(02)03174-8
    108 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-8993(02)03344-9
    109 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-8993(03)02674-x
    110 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-8993(98)00454-5
    111 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0014-2999(00)00003-0
    112 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0014-2999(03)01557-7
    113 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0024-3205(97)00285-3
    114 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0028-3908(02)00166-1
    115 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0091-3057(00)00205-7
    116 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0091-3057(97)00330-4
    117 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0163-7258(01)00158-9
    118 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0169-328x(97)00338-0
    119 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0304-4165(02)00487-7
    120 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0306-4522(01)00042-2
    121 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0741-8329(96)00116-4
    122 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0741-8329(97)86147-2
    123 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0969-8051(99)00078-5
    124 https://doi.org/10.1038/bjp.2008.30
    125 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1471-4159.2003.02296.x
    126 https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-980076
    127 https://doi.org/10.1093/alcalc/agh111
    128 https://doi.org/10.1093/alcalc/agm057
    129 https://doi.org/10.1093/alcalc/agn001
    130 https://doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddm283
    131 https://doi.org/10.1097/01.alc.0000128225.83916.40
    132 https://doi.org/10.1097/01.alc.0000139825.35438.a4
    133 https://doi.org/10.1097/01.alc.0000164376.69978.6b
    134 https://doi.org/10.1097/01.alc.0000167743.96121.40
    135 https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2008.0089
    136 https://doi.org/10.1101/lm.70004
    137 https://doi.org/10.1101/lm.975308
    138 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1746.1995.tb01349.x
    139 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-9568.2004.03199.x
    140 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-4159.2006.03751.x
    141 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-4159.2008.05514.x
    142 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-4159.2008.05835.x
    143 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-4159.2009.06301.x
    144 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.1995.tb13248.x
    145 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.1996.tb15232.x
    146 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1521-0391.2003.tb00492.x
    147 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.1996.tb01936.x
    148 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.1998.tb03611.x
    149 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.2000.tb01964.x
    150 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.2006.00328.x
    151 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.2008.00745.x
    152 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.2008.00811.x
    153 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.2009.01084.x
    154 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2002.tb04175.x
    155 https://doi.org/10.1124/jpet.103.059790
    156 https://doi.org/10.1124/jpet.104.067983
    157 https://doi.org/10.1124/jpet.104.072025
    158 https://doi.org/10.1124/jpet.107.121228
    159 https://doi.org/10.1124/mol.105.018184
    160 https://doi.org/10.1124/mol.106.033043
    161 https://doi.org/10.1152/jn.90484.2008
    162 https://doi.org/10.1210/endo.133.6.8243321
    163 https://doi.org/10.1523/jneurosci.22-09-03338.2002
    164 https://doi.org/10.1523/jneurosci.22-23-10172.2002
    165 https://doi.org/10.1523/jneurosci.4237-05.2006
    166 https://doi.org/10.2174/157015908783769662
    167 https://doi.org/10.2217/17455057.4.1.51
    168 schema:datePublished 2010-08
    169 schema:datePublishedReg 2010-08-01
    170 schema:description It is well established that the continued intake of drugs of abuse is reinforcing-that is repeated consumption increases preference. This has been shown in some studies to extend to other drugs of abuse; use of one increases preference for another. In particular, the present review deals with the interaction of nicotine and alcohol as it has been shown that smoking is a risk factor for alcoholism and alcohol use is a risk factor to become a smoker. The review discusses changes in the brain caused by chronic nicotine and chronic alcohol intake to approach the possible mechanisms by which one drug increases the preference for another. Chronic nicotine administration was shown to affect nicotine receptors in the brain, affecting not only receptor levels and distribution, but also receptor subunit composition, thus affecting affinity to nicotine. Other receptor systems are also affected among others catecholamine, glutamate, GABA levels and opiate and cannabinoid receptors. In addition to receptor systems and transmitters, there are endocrine, metabolic and neuropeptide changes as well induced by nicotine. Similarly chronic alcohol intake results in changes in the brain, in multiple receptors, transmitters and peptides as discussed in this overview and also illustrated in the tables. The changes are sex and age-dependent-some changes in males are different from those in females and in general adolescents are more sensitive to drug effects than adults. Although nicotine and alcohol interact-not all the changes induced by the combined intake of both are additive-some are opposing. These opposing effects include those on locomotion, acetylcholine metabolism, nicotine binding, opiate peptides, glutamate transporters and endocannabinoid content among others. The two compounds lower the negative withdrawal symptoms of each other which may contribute to the increase in preference, but the mechanism by which preference increases-most likely consists of multiple components that are not clear at the present time. As the details of induced changes of nicotine and alcohol differ, it is likely that the mechanisms of increasing nicotine preference may not be identical to that of increasing alcohol preference. Stimulation of preference of yet other drugs may again be different -representing one aspect of drug specificity of reward mechanisms.
    171 schema:genre research_article
    172 schema:inLanguage en
    173 schema:isAccessibleForFree false
    174 schema:isPartOf N64519f13815e4860970572f67f55fac8
    175 N8cd56eb0bea64eeb95ad6439735d5732
    176 sg:journal.1085962
    177 schema:name Nicotine: Alcohol Reward Interactions
    178 schema:pagination 1248-1258
    179 schema:productId N042bd49e3f124332a5e6e2960aad2af5
    180 N759720e7192848a5845bcce8a4506156
    181 Ncdb55b5c1e3a406290b313fc8b6cddda
    182 Nf6d0b76c8cc743bfb5b1223e2d47af0c
    183 Nff728ca500d64c7c81fd3bd57fab96ab
    184 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038856257
    185 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11064-010-0181-8
    186 schema:sdDatePublished 2019-04-11T10:30
    187 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
    188 schema:sdPublisher Ne3780f96184d4222bd1b98e1b9d1c9da
    189 schema:url http://link.springer.com/10.1007%2Fs11064-010-0181-8
    190 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
    191 sgo:sdDataset articles
    192 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
    193 N042bd49e3f124332a5e6e2960aad2af5 schema:name doi
    194 schema:value 10.1007/s11064-010-0181-8
    195 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    196 N181e6ab69d834c9cbd53426b6d9a342a schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    197 schema:name Substance Withdrawal Syndrome
    198 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    199 N1f34c76127ea43ae86d15853f5b53198 rdf:first sg:person.01203017617.82
    200 rdf:rest N8e16b69428ae4c4e893160c1923ebd7f
    201 N20da484ba5464a15883e2771cd3defaf schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    202 schema:name Receptors, Nicotinic
    203 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    204 N377fc69ad8a845059bb13d1a8c12739a schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    205 schema:name Brain
    206 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    207 N4c34eda597914de7868a023333d1336d schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    208 schema:name Nicotine
    209 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    210 N514c92bad8194a168d03e12456550bf2 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    211 schema:name Receptors, Neurotransmitter
    212 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    213 N5eb738b78c5c452581ad61a1224d6162 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    214 schema:name Female
    215 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    216 N63332e6b886f4af797e311d7564d424a schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    217 schema:name Alcoholism
    218 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    219 N64519f13815e4860970572f67f55fac8 schema:volumeNumber 35
    220 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
    221 N6a230277a2be4e4492177bf110a0792b schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    222 schema:name Animals
    223 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    224 N7476c2087f2645ebad4be69a935c0293 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    225 schema:name Ethanol
    226 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    227 N759720e7192848a5845bcce8a4506156 schema:name pubmed_id
    228 schema:value 20499168
    229 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    230 N77c0f7d90751489bbad5ba617c6915ec schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    231 schema:name Neurotransmitter Agents
    232 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    233 N7e9550368d83492fb3f21b60cd4c14be schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    234 schema:name Drug Interactions
    235 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    236 N8cd56eb0bea64eeb95ad6439735d5732 schema:issueNumber 8
    237 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
    238 N8e16b69428ae4c4e893160c1923ebd7f rdf:first sg:person.01002303570.20
    239 rdf:rest rdf:nil
    240 N912eea8e82dc4a91974480eaf70b3504 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    241 schema:name Male
    242 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    243 Na467869d073041ffa6e9c627a43b549b schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    244 schema:name Nicotinic Agonists
    245 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    246 Nc62eee519dde4c6d9d2eda3cc87ccbca schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    247 schema:name Age Factors
    248 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    249 Ncdb55b5c1e3a406290b313fc8b6cddda schema:name readcube_id
    250 schema:value b91802d42b61693c1b024adfd9cca05cacf9cbc1eadce91fc1cc2a9326e19269
    251 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    252 Ne3780f96184d4222bd1b98e1b9d1c9da schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
    253 rdf:type schema:Organization
    254 Ne98ec831479c48198795820427884172 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    255 schema:name Tobacco Use Disorder
    256 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    257 Nf0911737d53646508cbfd87cb66626bc schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    258 schema:name Sex Factors
    259 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    260 Nf2abf968f27e42eca1d4345d0930cab4 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    261 schema:name Reward
    262 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    263 Nf6d0b76c8cc743bfb5b1223e2d47af0c schema:name dimensions_id
    264 schema:value pub.1038856257
    265 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    266 Nf90489877ae44de5bff0e209f2e0fe70 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    267 schema:name Humans
    268 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    269 Nff728ca500d64c7c81fd3bd57fab96ab schema:name nlm_unique_id
    270 schema:value 7613461
    271 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    272 anzsrc-for:11 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    273 schema:name Medical and Health Sciences
    274 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    275 anzsrc-for:1109 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    276 schema:name Neurosciences
    277 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    278 sg:journal.1085962 schema:issn 0364-3190
    279 1573-6903
    280 schema:name Neurochemical Research
    281 rdf:type schema:Periodical
    282 sg:person.01002303570.20 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.250263.0
    283 schema:familyName Sershen
    284 schema:givenName H.
    285 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01002303570.20
    286 rdf:type schema:Person
    287 sg:person.01203017617.82 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.250263.0
    288 schema:familyName Lajtha
    289 schema:givenName A.
    290 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01203017617.82
    291 rdf:type schema:Person
    292 sg:pub.10.1007/bf00172954 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043516528
    293 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00172954
    294 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    295 sg:pub.10.1007/bf00966669 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001033840
    296 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00966669
    297 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    298 sg:pub.10.1007/s00018-009-0135-y schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020461466
    299 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00018-009-0135-y
    300 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    301 sg:pub.10.1007/s00204-006-0131-z schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020840783
    302 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00204-006-0131-z
    303 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    304 sg:pub.10.1007/s00213-003-1574-z schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029564715
    305 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-003-1574-z
    306 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    307 sg:pub.10.1007/s00213-007-0812-1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018257526
    308 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-007-0812-1
    309 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    310 sg:pub.10.1007/s00213-007-0982-x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015050965
    311 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-007-0982-x
    312 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    313 sg:pub.10.1007/s00213-009-1607-3 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022182502
    314 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-009-1607-3
    315 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    316 sg:pub.10.1007/s00213-009-1760-8 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038148368
    317 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-009-1760-8
    318 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    319 sg:pub.10.1007/s002130000401 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046918954
    320 https://doi.org/10.1007/s002130000401
    321 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    322 sg:pub.10.1007/s11064-005-2689-x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018415635
    323 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11064-005-2689-x
    324 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    325 sg:pub.10.1007/s11064-005-8836-6 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030645151
    326 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11064-005-8836-6
    327 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    328 sg:pub.10.1007/s11064-009-0096-4 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034336162
    329 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11064-009-0096-4
    330 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    331 sg:pub.10.1016/s0893-133x(97)00040-7 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019836301
    332 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0893-133x(97)00040-7
    333 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    334 sg:pub.10.1023/a:1022861020835 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005758836
    335 https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1022861020835
    336 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    337 sg:pub.10.1023/b:nere.0000035814.45494.15 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035907555
    338 https://doi.org/10.1023/b:nere.0000035814.45494.15
    339 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    340 sg:pub.10.1038/34413 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028979844
    341 https://doi.org/10.1038/34413
    342 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    343 sg:pub.10.1038/aps.2009.55 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053291928
    344 https://doi.org/10.1038/aps.2009.55
    345 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    346 sg:pub.10.1038/mp.2009.59 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048532244
    347 https://doi.org/10.1038/mp.2009.59
    348 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    349 sg:pub.10.1038/npp.2009.110 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015586529
    350 https://doi.org/10.1038/npp.2009.110
    351 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    352 sg:pub.10.1038/npp.2010.7 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024577306
    353 https://doi.org/10.1038/npp.2010.7
    354 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    355 sg:pub.10.1038/sj.npp.1300221 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048588209
    356 https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.npp.1300221
    357 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    358 sg:pub.10.1038/sj.npp.1301231 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034566796
    359 https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.npp.1301231
    360 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    361 sg:pub.10.1038/sj.npp.1301466 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034810775
    362 https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.npp.1301466
    363 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    364 sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2172-10-49 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047605936
    365 https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2172-10-49
    366 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    367 sg:pub.10.2165/00023210-200115050-00005 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030554183
    368 https://doi.org/10.2165/00023210-200115050-00005
    369 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    370 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1074535772 schema:CreativeWork
    371 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077388265 schema:CreativeWork
    372 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082644971 schema:CreativeWork
    373 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082944284 schema:CreativeWork
    374 https://doi.org/10.1002/jnr.20329 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021489294
    375 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    376 https://doi.org/10.1002/syn.10170 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048774233
    377 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    378 https://doi.org/10.1002/syn.20713 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041726824
    379 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    380 https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-8993(91)90810-i schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047352694
    381 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    382 https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-8993(92)90120-x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043006343
    383 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    384 https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-8993(93)91104-z schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020890323
    385 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    386 https://doi.org/10.1016/0376-8716(95)01119-j schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036225503
    387 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    388 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.alcohol.2009.09.027 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025328826
    389 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    390 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2009.09.018 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037846937
    391 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    392 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bcp.2009.06.011 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010065329
    393 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    394 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bcp.2009.06.099 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028539825
    395 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    396 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2003.08.024 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009806524
    397 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    398 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2006.11.046 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010371782
    399 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    400 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2007.07.077 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028845431
    401 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    402 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2008.03.056 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010463072
    403 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    404 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2008.07.062 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044374227
    405 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    406 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2009.07.099 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042248728
    407 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    408 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2007.05.007 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024906169
    409 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    410 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2008.03.001 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046903750
    411 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    412 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2008.03.017 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029942469
    413 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    414 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2009.04.005 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003503910
    415 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    416 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2009.11.003 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050170088
    417 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    418 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2010.02.008 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005536015
    419 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    420 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2008.06.014 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041465799
    421 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    422 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2008.03.028 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006691291
    423 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    424 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.euroneuro.2005.03.004 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014099502
    425 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    426 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.euroneuro.2009.01.007 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024354423
    427 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    428 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2008.12.008 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014010117
    429 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    430 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2009.10.007 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022222668
    431 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    432 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2003.11.010 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022416849
    433 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    434 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2005.02.016 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022341866
    435 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    436 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2007.06.002 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001814954
    437 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    438 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2007.11.074 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039715490
    439 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    440 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2008.01.021 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000248355
    441 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    442 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2008.05.023 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017516738
    443 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    444 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2005.04.022 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010055063
    445 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    446 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2004.08.010 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036785998
    447 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    448 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2004.10.006 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028225696
    449 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    450 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2006.08.066 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048917840
    451 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    452 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2007.03.008 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045041396
    453 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    454 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2009.05.032 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042183914
    455 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    456 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2009.10.045 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009436434
    457 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    458 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2009.12.073 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001599102
    459 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    460 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nlm.2008.01.006 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024562756
    461 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    462 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ntt.2006.10.012 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037746381
    463 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    464 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ntt.2009.06.001 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042500781
    465 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    466 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pbb.2009.07.004 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044317372
    467 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    468 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pharmthera.2003.12.001 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012544442
    469 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    470 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pharmthera.2007.06.011 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010227748
    471 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    472 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pharmthera.2009.02.003 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037048049
    473 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    474 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2007.05.039 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044931347
    475 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    476 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pneurobio.2009.09.004 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045985107
    477 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    478 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.regpep.2004.08.025 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017331664
    479 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    480 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yfrne.2007.07.003 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012714843
    481 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    482 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-8993(01)02847-5 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006906249
    483 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    484 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-8993(02)03174-8 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013638127
    485 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    486 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-8993(02)03344-9 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026196207
    487 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    488 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-8993(03)02674-x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015661574
    489 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    490 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-8993(98)00454-5 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033597573
    491 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    492 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0014-2999(00)00003-0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033823071
    493 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    494 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0014-2999(03)01557-7 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025944374
    495 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    496 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0024-3205(97)00285-3 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053456846
    497 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    498 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0028-3908(02)00166-1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000724805
    499 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    500 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0091-3057(00)00205-7 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018251256
    501 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    502 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0091-3057(97)00330-4 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021635344
    503 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    504 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0163-7258(01)00158-9 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032453891
    505 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    506 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0169-328x(97)00338-0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013801776
    507 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    508 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0304-4165(02)00487-7 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037026953
    509 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    510 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0306-4522(01)00042-2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045733969
    511 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    512 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0741-8329(96)00116-4 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002492629
    513 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    514 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0741-8329(97)86147-2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043345102
    515 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    516 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0969-8051(99)00078-5 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031724564
    517 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    518 https://doi.org/10.1038/bjp.2008.30 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041066784
    519 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    520 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1471-4159.2003.02296.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020224527
    521 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    522 https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-980076 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1057509464
    523 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    524 https://doi.org/10.1093/alcalc/agh111 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037827887
    525 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    526 https://doi.org/10.1093/alcalc/agm057 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012352251
    527 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    528 https://doi.org/10.1093/alcalc/agn001 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036951570
    529 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    530 https://doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddm283 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041836453
    531 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    532 https://doi.org/10.1097/01.alc.0000128225.83916.40 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010897037
    533 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    534 https://doi.org/10.1097/01.alc.0000139825.35438.a4 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031813234
    535 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    536 https://doi.org/10.1097/01.alc.0000164376.69978.6b schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041677040
    537 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    538 https://doi.org/10.1097/01.alc.0000167743.96121.40 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016535290
    539 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    540 https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2008.0089 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040106988
    541 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    542 https://doi.org/10.1101/lm.70004 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044182833
    543 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    544 https://doi.org/10.1101/lm.975308 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003957345
    545 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    546 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1746.1995.tb01349.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021198177
    547 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    548 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-9568.2004.03199.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015975469
    549 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    550 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-4159.2006.03751.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036937264
    551 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    552 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-4159.2008.05514.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024682856
    553 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    554 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-4159.2008.05835.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031041559
    555 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    556 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-4159.2009.06301.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012480944
    557 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    558 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.1995.tb13248.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007691293
    559 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    560 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.1996.tb15232.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033140157
    561 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    562 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1521-0391.2003.tb00492.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011303180
    563 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    564 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.1996.tb01936.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011816470
    565 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    566 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.1998.tb03611.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006915213
    567 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    568 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.2000.tb01964.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042586575
    569 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    570 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.2006.00328.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001836007
    571 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    572 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.2008.00745.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050892536
    573 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    574 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.2008.00811.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029283386
    575 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    576 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.2009.01084.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012169339
    577 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    578 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2002.tb04175.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001722059
    579 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    580 https://doi.org/10.1124/jpet.103.059790 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021592849
    581 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    582 https://doi.org/10.1124/jpet.104.067983 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004390428
    583 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    584 https://doi.org/10.1124/jpet.104.072025 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034765071
    585 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    586 https://doi.org/10.1124/jpet.107.121228 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011186040
    587 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    588 https://doi.org/10.1124/mol.105.018184 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007261804
    589 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    590 https://doi.org/10.1124/mol.106.033043 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003069271
    591 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    592 https://doi.org/10.1152/jn.90484.2008 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005811773
    593 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    594 https://doi.org/10.1210/endo.133.6.8243321 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1064278907
    595 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    596 https://doi.org/10.1523/jneurosci.22-09-03338.2002 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1075041928
    597 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    598 https://doi.org/10.1523/jneurosci.22-23-10172.2002 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1075195972
    599 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    600 https://doi.org/10.1523/jneurosci.4237-05.2006 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006569025
    601 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    602 https://doi.org/10.2174/157015908783769662 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021864124
    603 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    604 https://doi.org/10.2217/17455057.4.1.51 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013216492
    605 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    606 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.250263.0 schema:alternateName Nathan Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research
    607 schema:name Nathan Kline Institute, Orangeburg, NY10962, USA
    608 rdf:type schema:Organization
     




    Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


    ...