Ventricular opening and cerebrospinal fluid circulation accelerate the biodegradation process of carmustine wafers suggesting their immunomodulation potential in the human ... View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2022-07-08

AUTHORS

Ichiyo Shibahara, Yukiko Shibahara, Hiroyuki Hagiwara, Takashi Watanabe, Yasushi Orihashi, Hajime Handa, Madoka Inukai, Takuichiro Hide, Yoshie Yasui, Toshihiro Kumabe

ABSTRACT

PurposeOpening the ventricular system during glioblastoma surgery is often necessary, but the consequent effect on the tumor microenvironment of glioblastoma remains unknown. Implantation of carmustine wafer enables direct drug delivery to the tumor site; however, the exact mechanism of the wafer’s biodegradation process is unclear, and the available data is limited to in vivo non-human mammalian studies. We hypothesized that the ventricular opening affects the degradation process of the wafer and the glioblastoma tumor microenvironment. MethodsThis study included 30 glioblastoma patients. 21 patients underwent carmustine wafer implantation during initial surgery. All patients underwent repeated surgical resection upon recurrence, allowing for pathological comparison of changes associated with wafer implantation. Immunohistochemical analyses were performed using CD68, TMEM119, CD163, IBA1, BIN1, and CD31 antibodies to highlight microglia, macrophages, and tumor vascularity, and the quantitative scoring results were correlated with clinical, molecular, and surgical variables, including the effect of the ventricular opening.ResultsThe carmustine wafer implanted group presented significantly less TMEM119-positive microglia within the tumor (P = 0.0002). Simple and multiple regression analyses revealed that the decrease in TMEM119-positive microglia was correlated with longer intervals between surgeries and opened ventricular systems. No correlation was observed between age, methylated O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase promoter expression, and the extent of surgical resection.ConclusionsOur study findings strongly suggest that biomaterials may possess immunomodulation capacity, which is significantly impacted by the ventricular opening procedure. Furthermore, our data highlights the pathophysiological effects of the ventricular opening within the surrounding human brain, especially after the wafer implantation. More... »

PAGES

1-11

References to SciGraph publications

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  • 1996-05. Morphological Characterization of Polyanhydride Biodegradable Implant Gliadel® During in Vitro and in Vivo Erosion Using Scanning Electron Microscopy in PHARMACEUTICAL RESEARCH
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    21 schema:description PurposeOpening the ventricular system during glioblastoma surgery is often necessary, but the consequent effect on the tumor microenvironment of glioblastoma remains unknown. Implantation of carmustine wafer enables direct drug delivery to the tumor site; however, the exact mechanism of the wafer’s biodegradation process is unclear, and the available data is limited to in vivo non-human mammalian studies. We hypothesized that the ventricular opening affects the degradation process of the wafer and the glioblastoma tumor microenvironment. MethodsThis study included 30 glioblastoma patients. 21 patients underwent carmustine wafer implantation during initial surgery. All patients underwent repeated surgical resection upon recurrence, allowing for pathological comparison of changes associated with wafer implantation. Immunohistochemical analyses were performed using CD68, TMEM119, CD163, IBA1, BIN1, and CD31 antibodies to highlight microglia, macrophages, and tumor vascularity, and the quantitative scoring results were correlated with clinical, molecular, and surgical variables, including the effect of the ventricular opening.ResultsThe carmustine wafer implanted group presented significantly less TMEM119-positive microglia within the tumor (P = 0.0002). Simple and multiple regression analyses revealed that the decrease in TMEM119-positive microglia was correlated with longer intervals between surgeries and opened ventricular systems. No correlation was observed between age, methylated O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase promoter expression, and the extent of surgical resection.ConclusionsOur study findings strongly suggest that biomaterials may possess immunomodulation capacity, which is significantly impacted by the ventricular opening procedure. Furthermore, our data highlights the pathophysiological effects of the ventricular opening within the surrounding human brain, especially after the wafer implantation.
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    28 CD163
    29 CD31 antibody
    30 CD68
    31 ConclusionsOur study findings
    32 Iba1
    33 MethodsThis study
    34 TMEM119
    35 age
    36 analysis
    37 antibodies
    38 available data
    39 biodegradation process
    40 biomaterials
    41 brain
    42 capacity
    43 carmustine
    44 carmustine wafer implantation
    45 carmustine wafers
    46 cerebrospinal fluid circulation
    47 changes
    48 circulation
    49 comparison
    50 consequent effects
    51 correlation
    52 data
    53 decrease
    54 degradation process
    55 delivery
    56 direct drug delivery
    57 drug delivery
    58 effect
    59 exact mechanism
    60 expression
    61 extent
    62 findings
    63 fluid circulation
    64 glioblastoma
    65 glioblastoma patients
    66 glioblastoma surgery
    67 glioblastoma tumor microenvironment
    68 group
    69 human brain
    70 immunohistochemical analysis
    71 immunomodulation capacity
    72 immunomodulation potential
    73 implantation
    74 implanted group
    75 initial surgery
    76 interval
    77 longer intervals
    78 macrophages
    79 mammalian studies
    80 mechanism
    81 microenvironment
    82 microglia
    83 multiple regression analysis
    84 opening
    85 opening procedure
    86 pathological comparison
    87 pathophysiological effects
    88 patients
    89 potential
    90 procedure
    91 process
    92 promoter expression
    93 recurrence
    94 regression analysis
    95 resection
    96 results
    97 scoring results
    98 sites
    99 study
    100 study findings
    101 surgery
    102 surgical resection
    103 surgical variables
    104 system
    105 tumor microenvironment
    106 tumor site
    107 tumor vascularity
    108 tumors
    109 variables
    110 vascularity
    111 ventricular opening
    112 ventricular system
    113 wafer implantation
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    115 schema:name Ventricular opening and cerebrospinal fluid circulation accelerate the biodegradation process of carmustine wafers suggesting their immunomodulation potential in the human brain
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