Decreased BMP2 signal in GIT1 knockout mice slows bone healing View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2014-08-20

AUTHORS

T. J. Sheu, Wei Zhou, Jin Fan, Hao Zhou, Michael J. Zuscik, Chao Xie, Guoyong Yin, Bradford C. Berk

ABSTRACT

Endochondral ossification, an important stage of fracture healing, is regulated by a variety of signaling pathways. Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) superfamily plays important roles and comprises TGFβs, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), and growth differentiation factors. TGFβs primarily regulate cartilage formation and endochondral ossification. BMP2 shows diverse efficacy, from the formation of skeleton and extraskeletal organs to the osteogenesis and remodeling of bone. G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2-interacting protein-1 (GIT1), a shuttle protein in osteoblasts, facilitates fracture healing by promoting bone formation and increasing the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor. Our study examined whether GIT1 regulates fracture healing through the BMP2 signaling pathway and/or through the TGFβ signaling pathway. GIT1 knockout (KO) mice exhibited delayed fracture healing, chondrocyte accumulation in the fracture area, and reduced staining intensity of phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 (pSmad1/5/8) and Runx2. Endochondral mineralization diminished while the staining intensity of phosphorylated Smad2/3 (pSmad2/3) showed no significant change. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells extracted from GIT1 KO mice showed a decline of pSmad1/5/8 levels and of pSmad1/5/8 translocated into the cell nucleus after BMP2 stimulus. We detected no significant change in the pSmad2/3 level after TGFβ1 stimulus. Data obtained from reporter gene analysis of C3H10T1/2 cells cultured in vitro confirmed these findings. GIT1-siRNA inhibited transcription in the cell nucleus via pSmad1/5/8 after BMP2 stimulus but had no significant effect on transcription via pSmad2/3 after TGFβ1 stimulus. Our results indicate that GIT1 regulates Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation and mediates BMP2 regulation of Runx2 expression, thus affecting endochondral ossification at the fracture site. More... »

PAGES

67-74

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s11010-014-2173-5

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11010-014-2173-5

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014484771

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25138700


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