Architectural Properties of Sloth Forelimb Muscles (Pilosa: Bradypodidae) View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2018-12

AUTHORS

Rachel A. Olson, Zachary D. Glenn, Rebecca N. Cliffe, Michael T. Butcher

ABSTRACT

Tree sloths have reduced skeletal muscle mass, and yet they are able to perform suspensory behaviors that require both strength and fatigue resistance to suspend their body mass for extended periods of time. The muscle architecture of sloths is hypothesized to be modified in ways that will enhance force production to compensate for this reduction in limb muscle mass. Our objective is to test this hypothesis by quantifying architecture properties in the forelimb musculature of the brown-throated three-toed sloth (Bradypus variegatus: N = 4). We evaluated architecture from 52 forelimb muscles by measuring muscle moment arm (rm), muscle mass (MM), belly length (ML), fascicle length (LF), pennation angle (θ), and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA), and these metrics were used to estimate isometric force, joint torque, and power. Overall, the musculature becomes progressively more pennate from the extrinsic to intrinsic regions of the forelimb, and the flexors are more well developed than the extensors as predicted. However, most muscles are indicative of a mechanical design for fast joint rotational velocity instead of large joint torque (i.e., strength), although certain large, parallel-fibered shoulder (e.g., m. latissimus dorsi) and elbow (e.g., m. brachioradialis) flexors are capable of producing appreciable torques by having elongated moment arms. This type of functional tradeoff between joint rotational velocity and mechanical advantage is further exemplified by muscle gearing in Bradypus that pairs synergistic muscles with opposing LF/rm ratios in each functional group. These properties are suggested to facilitate the slow, controlled movements in sloths. In addition, the carpal/digital flexors have variable architectural properties, but their collective PCSA and joint torque indicates the capability for maintaining grip force and carpal stability while distributing load from the manus to the shoulder. The observed specializations provide a basis for understanding sustained suspension in sloths. More... »

PAGES

573-588

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s10914-017-9411-z

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10914-017-9411-z

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1091916753


Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

[
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "about": [
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/1103", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Clinical Sciences", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/11", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Medical and Health Sciences", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }
    ], 
    "author": [
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Ohio University", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.20627.31", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Biological Sciences, Ohio University, Athens, OH, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Olson", 
        "givenName": "Rachel A.", 
        "id": "sg:person.011045034353.94", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.011045034353.94"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Youngstown State University", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.268467.9", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Biological Sciences, Youngstown State University, 4013 Ward Beecher Science Hall, 44555, Youngstown, OH, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Glenn", 
        "givenName": "Zachary D.", 
        "id": "sg:person.014032736353.17", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.014032736353.17"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Swansea University", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.4827.9", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Biosciences, Swansea University, Wales, UK"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Cliffe", 
        "givenName": "Rebecca N.", 
        "id": "sg:person.01121423664.10", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01121423664.10"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Youngstown State University", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.268467.9", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Biological Sciences, Youngstown State University, 4013 Ward Beecher Science Hall, 44555, Youngstown, OH, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Butcher", 
        "givenName": "Michael T.", 
        "id": "sg:person.0723440427.40", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0723440427.40"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }
    ], 
    "citation": [
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1071/zo13086", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000181922"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7580.2011.01344.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001093054"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7580.2007.00703.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002138627"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7580.2007.00703.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002138627"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1644/09-mamm-a-113.1", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005344370"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/jmor.20074", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007269731"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7580.2011.01394.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008670185"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s13364-012-0099-4", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011426385", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s13364-012-0099-4"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0167-9457(97)00030-4", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011568711"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/jmor.1051990108", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011765977"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7998.1981.tb04600.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013199373"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7998.1981.tb04600.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013199373"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/jmor.20178", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013638150"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.1938.0050", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016448432"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/jmor.1051830106", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017204216"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7580.2008.00961.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018478381"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2014.2192", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020389110"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7580.2009.01123.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021292982"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7580.2009.01123.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021292982"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-3495(96)79389-x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023185799"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1114/1.1540105", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024132770", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1114/1.1540105"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7580.2007.00704.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024178106"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1644/839.1", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025441753"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s10914-015-9299-4", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027193564", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s10914-015-9299-4"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.875", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028393144"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1644/850.1", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033488440"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1644/873.1", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038094838"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1644/13-mamm-a-174", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040316823"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-3495(94)80947-6", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041553023"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1242/jeb.107128", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041578046"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00601.2006", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042235340"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/ajp.21990", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042377404"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7580.2005.00420.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043926413"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7580.2005.00420.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043926413"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/jmor.1051690102", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048092831"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1017/s0952836902000717", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048146017"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s10914-011-9174-x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048677855", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s10914-011-9174-x"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s10914-011-9174-x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048677855", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s10914-011-9174-x"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0300-9629(83)90336-5", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048904643"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0300-9629(83)90336-5", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048904643"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7580.2008.00962.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049314122"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1242/jeb.01520", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051634015"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/jmor.1052020107", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052369684"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/jmor.1051730206", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053641082"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/scientificamerican0560-148", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1056541785", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican0560-148"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1086/687032", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058868253"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.00689.2001", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1063196873"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.2307/1374529", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1069456039"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.2307/1380728", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1069461386"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.2307/1381249", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1069461845"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077350324", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1079984985", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/jzo.12455", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1084607306"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.120160", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1099532165"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1152/ajplegacy.1939.127.1.127", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1100030863"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }
    ], 
    "datePublished": "2018-12", 
    "datePublishedReg": "2018-12-01", 
    "description": "Tree sloths have reduced skeletal muscle mass, and yet they are able to perform suspensory behaviors that require both strength and fatigue resistance to suspend their body mass for extended periods of time. The muscle architecture of sloths is hypothesized to be modified in ways that will enhance force production to compensate for this reduction in limb muscle mass. Our objective is to test this hypothesis by quantifying architecture properties in the forelimb musculature of the brown-throated three-toed sloth (Bradypus variegatus: N = 4). We evaluated architecture from 52 forelimb muscles by measuring muscle moment arm (rm), muscle mass (MM), belly length (ML), fascicle length (LF), pennation angle (\u03b8), and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA), and these metrics were used to estimate isometric force, joint torque, and power. Overall, the musculature becomes progressively more pennate from the extrinsic to intrinsic regions of the forelimb, and the flexors are more well developed than the extensors as predicted. However, most muscles are indicative of a mechanical design for fast joint rotational velocity instead of large joint torque (i.e., strength), although certain large, parallel-fibered shoulder (e.g., m. latissimus dorsi) and elbow (e.g., m. brachioradialis) flexors are capable of producing appreciable torques by having elongated moment arms. This type of functional tradeoff between joint rotational velocity and mechanical advantage is further exemplified by muscle gearing in Bradypus that pairs synergistic muscles with opposing LF/rm ratios in each functional group. These properties are suggested to facilitate the slow, controlled movements in sloths. In addition, the carpal/digital flexors have variable architectural properties, but their collective PCSA and joint torque indicates the capability for maintaining grip force and carpal stability while distributing load from the manus to the shoulder. The observed specializations provide a basis for understanding sustained suspension in sloths.", 
    "genre": "research_article", 
    "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s10914-017-9411-z", 
    "inLanguage": [
      "en"
    ], 
    "isAccessibleForFree": true, 
    "isPartOf": [
      {
        "id": "sg:journal.1104248", 
        "issn": [
          "1064-7554", 
          "1573-7055"
        ], 
        "name": "Journal of Mammalian Evolution", 
        "type": "Periodical"
      }, 
      {
        "issueNumber": "4", 
        "type": "PublicationIssue"
      }, 
      {
        "type": "PublicationVolume", 
        "volumeNumber": "25"
      }
    ], 
    "name": "Architectural Properties of Sloth Forelimb Muscles (Pilosa: Bradypodidae)", 
    "pagination": "573-588", 
    "productId": [
      {
        "name": "readcube_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "4f3972b5b07ed45fb6315be637e7337f03e8422583ec405b26608c54eeb45e64"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "doi", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "10.1007/s10914-017-9411-z"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "dimensions_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "pub.1091916753"
        ]
      }
    ], 
    "sameAs": [
      "https://doi.org/10.1007/s10914-017-9411-z", 
      "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1091916753"
    ], 
    "sdDataset": "articles", 
    "sdDatePublished": "2019-04-10T13:28", 
    "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
    "sdPublisher": {
      "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
      "type": "Organization"
    }, 
    "sdSource": "s3://com-uberresearch-data-dimensions-target-20181106-alternative/cleanup/v134/2549eaecd7973599484d7c17b260dba0a4ecb94b/merge/v9/a6c9fde33151104705d4d7ff012ea9563521a3ce/jats-lookup/v90/0000000001_0000000264/records_8659_00000573.jsonl", 
    "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
    "url": "https://link.springer.com/10.1007%2Fs10914-017-9411-z"
  }
]
 

Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s10914-017-9411-z'

N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s10914-017-9411-z'

Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s10914-017-9411-z'

RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s10914-017-9411-z'


 

This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

238 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      76 URIs      19 LITERALS      7 BLANK NODES

Subject Predicate Object
1 sg:pub.10.1007/s10914-017-9411-z schema:about anzsrc-for:11
2 anzsrc-for:1103
3 schema:author Ncd9a983a5c524654ac76a4a58007dc31
4 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1007/s10914-011-9174-x
5 sg:pub.10.1007/s10914-015-9299-4
6 sg:pub.10.1007/s13364-012-0099-4
7 sg:pub.10.1038/scientificamerican0560-148
8 sg:pub.10.1114/1.1540105
9 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077350324
10 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1079984985
11 https://doi.org/10.1002/ajp.21990
12 https://doi.org/10.1002/jmor.1051690102
13 https://doi.org/10.1002/jmor.1051730206
14 https://doi.org/10.1002/jmor.1051830106
15 https://doi.org/10.1002/jmor.1051990108
16 https://doi.org/10.1002/jmor.1052020107
17 https://doi.org/10.1002/jmor.20074
18 https://doi.org/10.1002/jmor.20178
19 https://doi.org/10.1016/0300-9629(83)90336-5
20 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-3495(94)80947-6
21 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-3495(96)79389-x
22 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0167-9457(97)00030-4
23 https://doi.org/10.1017/s0952836902000717
24 https://doi.org/10.1071/zo13086
25 https://doi.org/10.1086/687032
26 https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.1938.0050
27 https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2014.2192
28 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7580.2005.00420.x
29 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7580.2007.00703.x
30 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7580.2007.00704.x
31 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7580.2008.00961.x
32 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7580.2008.00962.x
33 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7580.2009.01123.x
34 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7580.2011.01344.x
35 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7580.2011.01394.x
36 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7998.1981.tb04600.x
37 https://doi.org/10.1111/jzo.12455
38 https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00601.2006
39 https://doi.org/10.1152/ajplegacy.1939.127.1.127
40 https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.00689.2001
41 https://doi.org/10.1242/jeb.01520
42 https://doi.org/10.1242/jeb.107128
43 https://doi.org/10.1644/09-mamm-a-113.1
44 https://doi.org/10.1644/13-mamm-a-174
45 https://doi.org/10.1644/839.1
46 https://doi.org/10.1644/850.1
47 https://doi.org/10.1644/873.1
48 https://doi.org/10.2307/1374529
49 https://doi.org/10.2307/1380728
50 https://doi.org/10.2307/1381249
51 https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.120160
52 https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.875
53 schema:datePublished 2018-12
54 schema:datePublishedReg 2018-12-01
55 schema:description Tree sloths have reduced skeletal muscle mass, and yet they are able to perform suspensory behaviors that require both strength and fatigue resistance to suspend their body mass for extended periods of time. The muscle architecture of sloths is hypothesized to be modified in ways that will enhance force production to compensate for this reduction in limb muscle mass. Our objective is to test this hypothesis by quantifying architecture properties in the forelimb musculature of the brown-throated three-toed sloth (Bradypus variegatus: N = 4). We evaluated architecture from 52 forelimb muscles by measuring muscle moment arm (rm), muscle mass (MM), belly length (ML), fascicle length (LF), pennation angle (θ), and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA), and these metrics were used to estimate isometric force, joint torque, and power. Overall, the musculature becomes progressively more pennate from the extrinsic to intrinsic regions of the forelimb, and the flexors are more well developed than the extensors as predicted. However, most muscles are indicative of a mechanical design for fast joint rotational velocity instead of large joint torque (i.e., strength), although certain large, parallel-fibered shoulder (e.g., m. latissimus dorsi) and elbow (e.g., m. brachioradialis) flexors are capable of producing appreciable torques by having elongated moment arms. This type of functional tradeoff between joint rotational velocity and mechanical advantage is further exemplified by muscle gearing in Bradypus that pairs synergistic muscles with opposing LF/rm ratios in each functional group. These properties are suggested to facilitate the slow, controlled movements in sloths. In addition, the carpal/digital flexors have variable architectural properties, but their collective PCSA and joint torque indicates the capability for maintaining grip force and carpal stability while distributing load from the manus to the shoulder. The observed specializations provide a basis for understanding sustained suspension in sloths.
56 schema:genre research_article
57 schema:inLanguage en
58 schema:isAccessibleForFree true
59 schema:isPartOf N50e46e3d68794ecbb63d3955184d3a36
60 N66613fb85a6540268283c4d81ddaf89d
61 sg:journal.1104248
62 schema:name Architectural Properties of Sloth Forelimb Muscles (Pilosa: Bradypodidae)
63 schema:pagination 573-588
64 schema:productId N19f4839c82a44ec4bdd84b4b77de9c1a
65 Na5739d78d5314591a26dc7c70db7ca1d
66 Ncba7637ac2794c9c93560795458c5155
67 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1091916753
68 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10914-017-9411-z
69 schema:sdDatePublished 2019-04-10T13:28
70 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
71 schema:sdPublisher N06d477b6bf114f24b72549d3b1adbb77
72 schema:url https://link.springer.com/10.1007%2Fs10914-017-9411-z
73 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
74 sgo:sdDataset articles
75 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
76 N001af5c7443b4713a68524659708a6a5 rdf:first sg:person.014032736353.17
77 rdf:rest N5236dcafabc04305819310ace33d6d66
78 N06d477b6bf114f24b72549d3b1adbb77 schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
79 rdf:type schema:Organization
80 N19f4839c82a44ec4bdd84b4b77de9c1a schema:name doi
81 schema:value 10.1007/s10914-017-9411-z
82 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
83 N50e46e3d68794ecbb63d3955184d3a36 schema:volumeNumber 25
84 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
85 N5236dcafabc04305819310ace33d6d66 rdf:first sg:person.01121423664.10
86 rdf:rest Nea547690533f4a99aa0166f17c27d4ea
87 N66613fb85a6540268283c4d81ddaf89d schema:issueNumber 4
88 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
89 Na5739d78d5314591a26dc7c70db7ca1d schema:name dimensions_id
90 schema:value pub.1091916753
91 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
92 Ncba7637ac2794c9c93560795458c5155 schema:name readcube_id
93 schema:value 4f3972b5b07ed45fb6315be637e7337f03e8422583ec405b26608c54eeb45e64
94 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
95 Ncd9a983a5c524654ac76a4a58007dc31 rdf:first sg:person.011045034353.94
96 rdf:rest N001af5c7443b4713a68524659708a6a5
97 Nea547690533f4a99aa0166f17c27d4ea rdf:first sg:person.0723440427.40
98 rdf:rest rdf:nil
99 anzsrc-for:11 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
100 schema:name Medical and Health Sciences
101 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
102 anzsrc-for:1103 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
103 schema:name Clinical Sciences
104 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
105 sg:journal.1104248 schema:issn 1064-7554
106 1573-7055
107 schema:name Journal of Mammalian Evolution
108 rdf:type schema:Periodical
109 sg:person.011045034353.94 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.20627.31
110 schema:familyName Olson
111 schema:givenName Rachel A.
112 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.011045034353.94
113 rdf:type schema:Person
114 sg:person.01121423664.10 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.4827.9
115 schema:familyName Cliffe
116 schema:givenName Rebecca N.
117 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01121423664.10
118 rdf:type schema:Person
119 sg:person.014032736353.17 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.268467.9
120 schema:familyName Glenn
121 schema:givenName Zachary D.
122 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.014032736353.17
123 rdf:type schema:Person
124 sg:person.0723440427.40 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.268467.9
125 schema:familyName Butcher
126 schema:givenName Michael T.
127 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0723440427.40
128 rdf:type schema:Person
129 sg:pub.10.1007/s10914-011-9174-x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048677855
130 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10914-011-9174-x
131 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
132 sg:pub.10.1007/s10914-015-9299-4 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027193564
133 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10914-015-9299-4
134 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
135 sg:pub.10.1007/s13364-012-0099-4 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011426385
136 https://doi.org/10.1007/s13364-012-0099-4
137 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
138 sg:pub.10.1038/scientificamerican0560-148 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1056541785
139 https://doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican0560-148
140 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
141 sg:pub.10.1114/1.1540105 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024132770
142 https://doi.org/10.1114/1.1540105
143 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
144 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077350324 schema:CreativeWork
145 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1079984985 schema:CreativeWork
146 https://doi.org/10.1002/ajp.21990 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042377404
147 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
148 https://doi.org/10.1002/jmor.1051690102 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048092831
149 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
150 https://doi.org/10.1002/jmor.1051730206 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053641082
151 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
152 https://doi.org/10.1002/jmor.1051830106 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017204216
153 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
154 https://doi.org/10.1002/jmor.1051990108 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011765977
155 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
156 https://doi.org/10.1002/jmor.1052020107 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052369684
157 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
158 https://doi.org/10.1002/jmor.20074 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007269731
159 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
160 https://doi.org/10.1002/jmor.20178 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013638150
161 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
162 https://doi.org/10.1016/0300-9629(83)90336-5 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048904643
163 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
164 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-3495(94)80947-6 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041553023
165 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
166 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-3495(96)79389-x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023185799
167 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
168 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0167-9457(97)00030-4 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011568711
169 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
170 https://doi.org/10.1017/s0952836902000717 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048146017
171 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
172 https://doi.org/10.1071/zo13086 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000181922
173 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
174 https://doi.org/10.1086/687032 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058868253
175 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
176 https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.1938.0050 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016448432
177 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
178 https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2014.2192 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020389110
179 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
180 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7580.2005.00420.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043926413
181 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
182 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7580.2007.00703.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002138627
183 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
184 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7580.2007.00704.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024178106
185 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
186 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7580.2008.00961.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018478381
187 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
188 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7580.2008.00962.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049314122
189 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
190 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7580.2009.01123.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021292982
191 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
192 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7580.2011.01344.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001093054
193 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
194 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7580.2011.01394.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008670185
195 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
196 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7998.1981.tb04600.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013199373
197 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
198 https://doi.org/10.1111/jzo.12455 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1084607306
199 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
200 https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00601.2006 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042235340
201 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
202 https://doi.org/10.1152/ajplegacy.1939.127.1.127 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1100030863
203 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
204 https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.00689.2001 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1063196873
205 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
206 https://doi.org/10.1242/jeb.01520 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051634015
207 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
208 https://doi.org/10.1242/jeb.107128 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041578046
209 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
210 https://doi.org/10.1644/09-mamm-a-113.1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005344370
211 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
212 https://doi.org/10.1644/13-mamm-a-174 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040316823
213 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
214 https://doi.org/10.1644/839.1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025441753
215 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
216 https://doi.org/10.1644/850.1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033488440
217 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
218 https://doi.org/10.1644/873.1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038094838
219 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
220 https://doi.org/10.2307/1374529 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1069456039
221 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
222 https://doi.org/10.2307/1380728 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1069461386
223 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
224 https://doi.org/10.2307/1381249 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1069461845
225 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
226 https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.120160 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1099532165
227 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
228 https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.875 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028393144
229 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
230 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.20627.31 schema:alternateName Ohio University
231 schema:name Department of Biological Sciences, Ohio University, Athens, OH, USA
232 rdf:type schema:Organization
233 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.268467.9 schema:alternateName Youngstown State University
234 schema:name Department of Biological Sciences, Youngstown State University, 4013 Ward Beecher Science Hall, 44555, Youngstown, OH, USA
235 rdf:type schema:Organization
236 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.4827.9 schema:alternateName Swansea University
237 schema:name Department of Biosciences, Swansea University, Wales, UK
238 rdf:type schema:Organization
 




Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


...