Rare-earth additions to lead-free electronic solders View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2006-09-12

AUTHORS

C. M. L. Wu, Y. W. Wong

ABSTRACT

The research in lead(Pb)-free solder alloy has been a popular topic in recent years, and has led to commercially available Pb-free alloys. Further research in certain properties to improve aspects such as manufacturability and long term reliability in many Pb-free alloys are currently undertaken. It was found by researchers that popular Pb-free solders such as Sn–Ag, Sn–Cu, Sn–Zn and Sn–Ag–Cu had improved their properties by doping with trace amounts of rare earth (RE) elements. The improvements include better wettability, creep strength and tensile strength. In particular, the increase in creep rupture time in Sn–Ag–Cu–RE was 7 times, when the RE elements were primarily Ce and La. Apart from these studies, other studies have also shown that the addition of RE elements to existing Pb-free could make it solderable to substrates such as semiconductors and optical materials. This paper summarizes the effect of RE elements on the microstructure, mechanical properties and wetting behavior of certain Pb-free solder alloys. It also demonstrates that the addition of RE elements would improve the reliability of the interconnections in electronic packaging. For example, when Pb-free-RE alloys were used as solder balls in a ball grid array (BGA) package, the intermetallic compound layer thickness and the amount of interfacial reaction were reduced. More... »

PAGES

77-91

References to SciGraph publications

  • 2002-02. Effect of Cu concentration on the interfacial reactions between Ni and Sn–Cu solders in JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH
  • 2004-09. Constitutive relations on creep for SnAgCuRE lead-free solder joints in JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC MATERIALS
  • 2003-02. The wettability and microstructure of Sn-Zn-RE alloys in JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC MATERIALS
  • 2002-11. Creep behavior of eutectic Sn–Ag lead-free solder alloy in JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH
  • 1998-12. Microstructure changes in Sn-3.5Ag solder alloy during creep in JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC MATERIALS
  • 2002-10. Study on the microstructure of a novel lead-free solder alloy SnAgCu-RE and its soldered joints in JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC MATERIALS
  • 2006-01. Microstructure, solderability, and growth of intermetallic compounds of Sn-Ag-Cu-RE lead-free solder alloys in JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC MATERIALS
  • 1998-10. Wetting and interface microstructure between Sn–Zn binary alloys and Cu in JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH
  • 1994-08. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Pb-free solder alloys for low-cost electronic assembly: A review in JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC MATERIALS
  • 2002-11. Lead-free universal solders for optical and electronic devices in JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC MATERIALS
  • 2003-04. Properties of lead-free solder SnAgCu containing minute amounts of rare earth in JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC MATERIALS
  • 1999-11. Characterization of the growth of intermetallic interfacial layers of Sn-Ag and Sn-Pb eutectic solders and their composite solders on Cu substrate during isothermal long-term aging in JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC MATERIALS
  • 1993-07. Issues in the replacement of lead-bearing solders in JOM
  • 1997-07. Activation energies of intermetallic growth of Sn-Ag eutectic solder on copper substrates in JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC MATERIALS
  • 1996-05. The mechanical behavior of interconnect materials for electronic packaging in JOM
  • 2002-09. The properties of Sn-9Zn lead-free solder alloys doped with trace rare earth elements in JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC MATERIALS
  • 2005-03. Effect of rare earth element addition on the microstructure of Sn-Ag-Cu solder joint in JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC MATERIALS
  • 2000-06. The creep properties of precipitation-strengthened tin-based alloys in JOM
  • 2002-09. Microstructure and mechanical properties of new lead-free Sn-Cu-RE solder alloys in JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC MATERIALS
  • 2002-06. Effect of Cu concentration on the reactions between Sn-Ag-Cu solders and Ni in JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC MATERIALS
  • 2002-06. Effect of rare earth element additions on the microstructure and mechanical properties of tin-silver-bismuth solder in JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC MATERIALS
  • 2001-09. The growth of intermetallic compounds at Sn-Ag-Cu solder/Cu and Sn-Ag-Cu solder/Ni interfaces and the associated evolution of the solder microstructure in JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC MATERIALS
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    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s10854-006-9022-6

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    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10854-006-9022-6

    DIMENSIONS

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