Electric current-assisted creep behaviour of Sn–3.0Ag–0.5Cu solder View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

2018-01-02

AUTHORS

Xu Long, Wenbin Tang, Mengfei Xu, Leon M. Keer, Yao Yao

ABSTRACT

The creep behaviour of Sn–3.0Ag–0.5Cu lead-free solder specimens with a diameter of 1.0 mm is investigated subjected to tensile forces from 10 to 25 N under electric currents ranging from 0 to 20 A. Due to the Joule heating effect, the solder temperature induced by electric current is measured to quantify the deterioration of tensile behaviour. Based on the observed steady-state creep deformation, the creep strain rate varies linearly with the tensile stress in the natural logarithmic coordinate with a stress threshold for the electric current between 0 and 10 A, and the natural logarithm of creep rate has a linear relationship with the square of current density. By revealing the dislocation climbing as the dominate creep mechanism under the coupled mechanical–electric–thermal loading, a modified Norton’s model is proposed which shows exponential dependence on the square of current density and the natural logarithm of tensile stress with the stress exponent enriched as a quadratic function of current density. More... »

PAGES

6219-6229

References to SciGraph publications

  • 2012-11-27. Analysing the growth of intermetallic compounds in lead-free solder joints by differential scanning calorimetry measurements in JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE
  • 2005-01. Creep deformation characteristics of tin and tin-based electronic solder alloys in METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS A
  • 1973-09. Creep of metals under the influence of electric current in STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
  • 2017-02-10. An improved unified creep-plasticity model for SnAgCu solder under a wide range of strain rates in JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE
  • 2006-03-24. Intermetallic compounds evolution between lead-free solder and cu-based lead frame alloys during isothermal aging in JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE
  • 2009-03-01. A review of mechanical properties of lead-free solders for electronic packaging in JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE
  • 2016-08-06. Creep behavior of micro-scale Cu/Sn–3.0Ag–0.5Cu/Cu joints under electro-thermo-mechanical coupled loads in JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE: MATERIALS IN ELECTRONICS
  • 2004-12. Effects of cooling rate on creep behavior of a Sn-3.5Ag alloy in JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC MATERIALS
  • 2015-10-19. Preface to the 50th anniversary issue of the Journal of Materials Science in JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE
  • 2016-08-04. Thermo-migration behavior of SAC305 lead-free solder reinforced with fullerene nanoparticles in JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE
  • 2017-05-08. Annealing optimization for tin–lead eutectic solder by constitutive experiment and simulation in JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH
  • 2009-07-01. Constitutive models of creep for lead-free solders in JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE
  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s10853-017-1967-8

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10853-017-1967-8

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1100155860


    Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
    Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

    JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

    TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

    [
      {
        "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
        "about": [
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/09", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Engineering", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/0912", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Materials Engineering", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }
        ], 
        "author": [
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "School of Mechanics, Civil Engineering and Architecture, Northwestern Polytechnical University, 710072, Xi\u2019an, China", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.440588.5", 
              "name": [
                "School of Mechanics, Civil Engineering and Architecture, Northwestern Polytechnical University, 710072, Xi\u2019an, China"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Long", 
            "givenName": "Xu", 
            "id": "sg:person.010352721063.26", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.010352721063.26"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "School of Mechanics, Civil Engineering and Architecture, Northwestern Polytechnical University, 710072, Xi\u2019an, China", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.440588.5", 
              "name": [
                "School of Mechanics, Civil Engineering and Architecture, Northwestern Polytechnical University, 710072, Xi\u2019an, China"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Tang", 
            "givenName": "Wenbin", 
            "id": "sg:person.015502170454.01", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.015502170454.01"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "School of Aeronautics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, 710072, Xi\u2019an, China", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.440588.5", 
              "name": [
                "School of Aeronautics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, 710072, Xi\u2019an, China"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Xu", 
            "givenName": "Mengfei", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Rd., 60208, Evanston, IL, USA", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.16753.36", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Rd., 60208, Evanston, IL, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Keer", 
            "givenName": "Leon M.", 
            "id": "sg:person.011264371323.53", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.011264371323.53"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "School of Mechanics, Civil Engineering and Architecture, Northwestern Polytechnical University, 710072, Xi\u2019an, China", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.440588.5", 
              "name": [
                "School of Mechanics, Civil Engineering and Architecture, Northwestern Polytechnical University, 710072, Xi\u2019an, China"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Yao", 
            "givenName": "Yao", 
            "id": "sg:person.011313423711.63", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.011313423711.63"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }
        ], 
        "citation": [
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s10854-016-5443-z", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048782225", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s10854-016-5443-z"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s10853-012-7035-5", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042923125", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-012-7035-5"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s10853-017-0851-x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1083762358", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-017-0851-x"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s10853-016-0234-8", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037315995", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-016-0234-8"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s10853-015-9500-4", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028830802", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-015-9500-4"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s11664-004-0103-0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049748053", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s11664-004-0103-0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s10853-009-3521-9", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001502506", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-009-3521-9"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s11661-005-0142-z", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038881867", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s11661-005-0142-z"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1557/jmr.2017.166", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1085219483", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1557/jmr.2017.166"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s10853-006-4501-y", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012710154", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-006-4501-y"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf00762752", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040353080", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00762752"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s10853-008-3125-9", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010357683", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-008-3125-9"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }
        ], 
        "datePublished": "2018-01-02", 
        "datePublishedReg": "2018-01-02", 
        "description": "The creep behaviour of Sn\u20133.0Ag\u20130.5Cu lead-free solder specimens with a diameter of 1.0\u00a0mm is investigated subjected to tensile forces from 10 to 25\u00a0N under electric currents ranging from 0 to 20\u00a0A. Due to the Joule heating effect, the solder temperature induced by electric current is measured to quantify the deterioration of tensile behaviour. Based on the observed steady-state creep deformation, the creep strain rate varies linearly with the tensile stress in the natural logarithmic coordinate with a stress threshold for the electric current between 0 and 10\u00a0A, and the natural logarithm of creep rate has a linear relationship with the square of current density. By revealing the dislocation climbing as the dominate creep mechanism under the coupled mechanical\u2013electric\u2013thermal loading, a modified Norton\u2019s model is proposed which shows exponential dependence on the square of current density and the natural logarithm of tensile stress with the stress exponent enriched as a quadratic function of current density.", 
        "genre": "article", 
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s10853-017-1967-8", 
        "isAccessibleForFree": false, 
        "isFundedItemOf": [
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.8263985", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.8124494", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }
        ], 
        "isPartOf": [
          {
            "id": "sg:journal.1312116", 
            "issn": [
              "0022-2461", 
              "1573-4803"
            ], 
            "name": "Journal of Materials Science", 
            "publisher": "Springer Nature", 
            "type": "Periodical"
          }, 
          {
            "issueNumber": "8", 
            "type": "PublicationIssue"
          }, 
          {
            "type": "PublicationVolume", 
            "volumeNumber": "53"
          }
        ], 
        "keywords": [
          "current density", 
          "creep behavior", 
          "electric current", 
          "tensile stress", 
          "steady-state creep deformation", 
          "creep strain rate", 
          "lead-free solders", 
          "Joule heating effect", 
          "thermal loading", 
          "creep deformation", 
          "tensile behavior", 
          "stress exponent", 
          "creep mechanism", 
          "strain rate", 
          "creep rate", 
          "solder temperature", 
          "heating effect", 
          "tensile force", 
          "Norton model", 
          "stress threshold", 
          "solder", 
          "current", 
          "exponential dependence", 
          "density", 
          "deformation", 
          "loading", 
          "behavior", 
          "linear relationship", 
          "stress", 
          "quadratic function", 
          "temperature", 
          "dislocations", 
          "force", 
          "diameter", 
          "model", 
          "natural logarithm", 
          "squares", 
          "logarithmic", 
          "natural logarithmic", 
          "dependence", 
          "rate", 
          "exponent", 
          "deterioration", 
          "effect", 
          "logarithm", 
          "mechanism", 
          "threshold", 
          "function", 
          "relationship"
        ], 
        "name": "Electric current-assisted creep behaviour of Sn\u20133.0Ag\u20130.5Cu solder", 
        "pagination": "6219-6229", 
        "productId": [
          {
            "name": "dimensions_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "pub.1100155860"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "doi", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "10.1007/s10853-017-1967-8"
            ]
          }
        ], 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-017-1967-8", 
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1100155860"
        ], 
        "sdDataset": "articles", 
        "sdDatePublished": "2022-12-01T06:37", 
        "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
        "sdPublisher": {
          "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "sdSource": "s3://com-springernature-scigraph/baseset/20221201/entities/gbq_results/article/article_770.jsonl", 
        "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
        "url": "https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-017-1967-8"
      }
    ]
     

    Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

    HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

    JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s10853-017-1967-8'

    N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s10853-017-1967-8'

    Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

    curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s10853-017-1967-8'

    RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s10853-017-1967-8'


     

    This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

    190 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      85 URIs      65 LITERALS      6 BLANK NODES

    Subject Predicate Object
    1 sg:pub.10.1007/s10853-017-1967-8 schema:about anzsrc-for:09
    2 anzsrc-for:0912
    3 schema:author Naedf2bcaac4e4938a9f1c93e03d49f73
    4 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1007/bf00762752
    5 sg:pub.10.1007/s10853-006-4501-y
    6 sg:pub.10.1007/s10853-008-3125-9
    7 sg:pub.10.1007/s10853-009-3521-9
    8 sg:pub.10.1007/s10853-012-7035-5
    9 sg:pub.10.1007/s10853-015-9500-4
    10 sg:pub.10.1007/s10853-016-0234-8
    11 sg:pub.10.1007/s10853-017-0851-x
    12 sg:pub.10.1007/s10854-016-5443-z
    13 sg:pub.10.1007/s11661-005-0142-z
    14 sg:pub.10.1007/s11664-004-0103-0
    15 sg:pub.10.1557/jmr.2017.166
    16 schema:datePublished 2018-01-02
    17 schema:datePublishedReg 2018-01-02
    18 schema:description The creep behaviour of Sn–3.0Ag–0.5Cu lead-free solder specimens with a diameter of 1.0 mm is investigated subjected to tensile forces from 10 to 25 N under electric currents ranging from 0 to 20 A. Due to the Joule heating effect, the solder temperature induced by electric current is measured to quantify the deterioration of tensile behaviour. Based on the observed steady-state creep deformation, the creep strain rate varies linearly with the tensile stress in the natural logarithmic coordinate with a stress threshold for the electric current between 0 and 10 A, and the natural logarithm of creep rate has a linear relationship with the square of current density. By revealing the dislocation climbing as the dominate creep mechanism under the coupled mechanical–electric–thermal loading, a modified Norton’s model is proposed which shows exponential dependence on the square of current density and the natural logarithm of tensile stress with the stress exponent enriched as a quadratic function of current density.
    19 schema:genre article
    20 schema:isAccessibleForFree false
    21 schema:isPartOf N41b4fb30eb0f413d9ad8636c246d53e2
    22 Ndaeee81bc4ec4339bdf47ff5e7769658
    23 sg:journal.1312116
    24 schema:keywords Joule heating effect
    25 Norton model
    26 behavior
    27 creep behavior
    28 creep deformation
    29 creep mechanism
    30 creep rate
    31 creep strain rate
    32 current
    33 current density
    34 deformation
    35 density
    36 dependence
    37 deterioration
    38 diameter
    39 dislocations
    40 effect
    41 electric current
    42 exponent
    43 exponential dependence
    44 force
    45 function
    46 heating effect
    47 lead-free solders
    48 linear relationship
    49 loading
    50 logarithm
    51 logarithmic
    52 mechanism
    53 model
    54 natural logarithm
    55 natural logarithmic
    56 quadratic function
    57 rate
    58 relationship
    59 solder
    60 solder temperature
    61 squares
    62 steady-state creep deformation
    63 strain rate
    64 stress
    65 stress exponent
    66 stress threshold
    67 temperature
    68 tensile behavior
    69 tensile force
    70 tensile stress
    71 thermal loading
    72 threshold
    73 schema:name Electric current-assisted creep behaviour of Sn–3.0Ag–0.5Cu solder
    74 schema:pagination 6219-6229
    75 schema:productId N3656f8f9da25428f81e3d3a098d6162c
    76 Nca7ff09da6d449f5956d920186643717
    77 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1100155860
    78 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-017-1967-8
    79 schema:sdDatePublished 2022-12-01T06:37
    80 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
    81 schema:sdPublisher Na71adf4fd1d64a37b794d9329a6c15ed
    82 schema:url https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-017-1967-8
    83 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
    84 sgo:sdDataset articles
    85 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
    86 N0b955afd56cb44eb98ad7527fa1ef74a schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.440588.5
    87 schema:familyName Xu
    88 schema:givenName Mengfei
    89 rdf:type schema:Person
    90 N18ea6a6a4a6443bf9c681a7737da3b51 rdf:first sg:person.011313423711.63
    91 rdf:rest rdf:nil
    92 N3656f8f9da25428f81e3d3a098d6162c schema:name dimensions_id
    93 schema:value pub.1100155860
    94 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    95 N41b4fb30eb0f413d9ad8636c246d53e2 schema:volumeNumber 53
    96 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
    97 N6107d57fb4c2445aa721866e6f1ef2a6 rdf:first N0b955afd56cb44eb98ad7527fa1ef74a
    98 rdf:rest N6d93f4c931154a7ba7ae879f4af171a5
    99 N6d93f4c931154a7ba7ae879f4af171a5 rdf:first sg:person.011264371323.53
    100 rdf:rest N18ea6a6a4a6443bf9c681a7737da3b51
    101 Na71adf4fd1d64a37b794d9329a6c15ed schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
    102 rdf:type schema:Organization
    103 Naedf2bcaac4e4938a9f1c93e03d49f73 rdf:first sg:person.010352721063.26
    104 rdf:rest Nfc56b0e3efe74219b605c622a4e433df
    105 Nca7ff09da6d449f5956d920186643717 schema:name doi
    106 schema:value 10.1007/s10853-017-1967-8
    107 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    108 Ndaeee81bc4ec4339bdf47ff5e7769658 schema:issueNumber 8
    109 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
    110 Nfc56b0e3efe74219b605c622a4e433df rdf:first sg:person.015502170454.01
    111 rdf:rest N6107d57fb4c2445aa721866e6f1ef2a6
    112 anzsrc-for:09 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    113 schema:name Engineering
    114 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    115 anzsrc-for:0912 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    116 schema:name Materials Engineering
    117 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    118 sg:grant.8124494 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1007/s10853-017-1967-8
    119 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    120 sg:grant.8263985 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1007/s10853-017-1967-8
    121 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    122 sg:journal.1312116 schema:issn 0022-2461
    123 1573-4803
    124 schema:name Journal of Materials Science
    125 schema:publisher Springer Nature
    126 rdf:type schema:Periodical
    127 sg:person.010352721063.26 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.440588.5
    128 schema:familyName Long
    129 schema:givenName Xu
    130 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.010352721063.26
    131 rdf:type schema:Person
    132 sg:person.011264371323.53 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.16753.36
    133 schema:familyName Keer
    134 schema:givenName Leon M.
    135 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.011264371323.53
    136 rdf:type schema:Person
    137 sg:person.011313423711.63 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.440588.5
    138 schema:familyName Yao
    139 schema:givenName Yao
    140 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.011313423711.63
    141 rdf:type schema:Person
    142 sg:person.015502170454.01 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.440588.5
    143 schema:familyName Tang
    144 schema:givenName Wenbin
    145 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.015502170454.01
    146 rdf:type schema:Person
    147 sg:pub.10.1007/bf00762752 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040353080
    148 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00762752
    149 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    150 sg:pub.10.1007/s10853-006-4501-y schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012710154
    151 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-006-4501-y
    152 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    153 sg:pub.10.1007/s10853-008-3125-9 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010357683
    154 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-008-3125-9
    155 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    156 sg:pub.10.1007/s10853-009-3521-9 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001502506
    157 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-009-3521-9
    158 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    159 sg:pub.10.1007/s10853-012-7035-5 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042923125
    160 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-012-7035-5
    161 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    162 sg:pub.10.1007/s10853-015-9500-4 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028830802
    163 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-015-9500-4
    164 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    165 sg:pub.10.1007/s10853-016-0234-8 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037315995
    166 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-016-0234-8
    167 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    168 sg:pub.10.1007/s10853-017-0851-x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1083762358
    169 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-017-0851-x
    170 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    171 sg:pub.10.1007/s10854-016-5443-z schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048782225
    172 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10854-016-5443-z
    173 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    174 sg:pub.10.1007/s11661-005-0142-z schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038881867
    175 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11661-005-0142-z
    176 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    177 sg:pub.10.1007/s11664-004-0103-0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049748053
    178 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11664-004-0103-0
    179 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    180 sg:pub.10.1557/jmr.2017.166 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1085219483
    181 https://doi.org/10.1557/jmr.2017.166
    182 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    183 grid-institutes:grid.16753.36 schema:alternateName Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Rd., 60208, Evanston, IL, USA
    184 schema:name Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Rd., 60208, Evanston, IL, USA
    185 rdf:type schema:Organization
    186 grid-institutes:grid.440588.5 schema:alternateName School of Aeronautics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, 710072, Xi’an, China
    187 School of Mechanics, Civil Engineering and Architecture, Northwestern Polytechnical University, 710072, Xi’an, China
    188 schema:name School of Aeronautics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, 710072, Xi’an, China
    189 School of Mechanics, Civil Engineering and Architecture, Northwestern Polytechnical University, 710072, Xi’an, China
    190 rdf:type schema:Organization
     




    Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


    ...