Fate and risks of potentially toxic elements in wastewater-fed food production systems—the examples of Cambodia and Vietnam View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2010-06

AUTHORS

Peter E. Holm, Helle Marcussen, Anders Dalsgaard

ABSTRACT

Non-treated wastewater is used for irrigation of aquatic food production systems in the peri-urban areas of the major cities in Southeast Asia. This paper complement the knowledge on agricultural soil-based crops irrigated with low quality water, by reviewing the research findings on the wastewater-fed aquatic productions with special focus on heavy metals and other potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in the production systems of Hanoi in Vietnam and Phnom Penh in Cambodia. In Hanoi, sediments in the wastewater exposed rivers of Hanoi were reported to be polluted with PTEs, in particular with Cadmium (Cd). The river sediment had a high retention capacity for PTEs which seems to prevent the transport of PTEs to the wastewater-fed production systems. In Phnom Penh, domestic and industrial wastewater is pumped into the Cheung Ek Lake located south of the city. A major part of the water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.) consumed in the city is produced in the lake. The concentrations of some PTEs were elevated at the wastewater inlets to the lake compared to concentrations at the lake outlet and at the control site. Water spinach is by far the major vegetable produced in the wastewater-fed systems in Hanoi and Phnom Penh, but did only contain PTEs in concentrations within or slightly above the concentration range observed for water spinach grown in agricultural soil not exposed to wastewater. PTE concentration in fish grown in wastewater-fed systems in Hanoi and Phnom were low. However, mean PTE concentrations in liver and skin of some fish were high. Consumption of muscle tissue from fish produced in wastewater-fed systems in Hanoi and Phnom Penh resulted in an estimated intake of PTEs amounting to less than 9% of the tolerable intake. It was concluded, that the PTE concentrations in fish and water spinach from Hanoi and Cheung Ek Lake in Phnom Penh constituted low food safety risks for consumers. More... »

PAGES

127-142

References to SciGraph publications

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  • Journal

    TITLE

    Irrigation and Drainage Systems

    ISSUE

    1-2

    VOLUME

    24

    Author Affiliations

    Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s10795-009-9086-6

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10795-009-9086-6

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042588713


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