The genotype–phenotype distinction: from Mendelian genetics to 21st century biology View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2022-07-25

AUTHORS

Gaëlle Pontarotti, Matteo Mossio, Arnaud Pocheville

ABSTRACT

The Genotype-Phenotype (G-P) distinction was proposed in the context of Mendelian genetics, in the wake of late nineteenth century studies about heredity. In this paper, we provide a conceptual analysis that highlights that the G-P distinction was grounded on three pillars: observability, transmissibility, and causality. Originally, the genotype is the non-observable and transmissible cause of its observable and non-transmissible effect, the phenotype. We argue that the current developments of biology have called the validity of such pillars into question. First, molecular biology has unveiled the putative material substrate of the genotype (qua DNA), making it an observable object. Second, numerous findings on non-genetic heredity suggest that some phenotypic traits can be directly transmitted. Third, recent organicist approaches to biological phenomena have emphasized the reciprocal causality between parts of a biological system, which notably applies to the relation between genotypes and phenotypes. As a consequence, we submit that the G-P distinction has lost its general validity, although it can still apply to specific situations. This calls for forging new frameworks and concepts to better describe heredity and development. More... »

PAGES

223-234

References to SciGraph publications

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  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s10709-022-00159-5

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10709-022-00159-5

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1149726785

    PUBMED

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/35877054


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