Hard X-ray polarimetry with Caliste, a high performance CdTe based imaging spectrometer View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2015-03-19

AUTHORS

S. Antier, P. Ferrando, O. Limousin, E. Caroli, R. M. Curado da Silva, C. Blondel, R. Chipaux, V. Honkimaki, B. Horeau, P. Laurent, J. M. Maia, A. Meuris, S. Del Sordo, J. B. Stephen

ABSTRACT

Since the initial exploration of the X- and soft γ-ray sky in the 60’s, high-energy celestial sources have been mainly characterized through imaging, spectroscopy and timing analysis. Despite tremendous progress in the field, the radiation mechanisms at work in sources such as neutrons stars, black holes, and Active Galactic Nuclei are still unclear. The polarization state of the radiation is an observational parameter which brings key additional information about the physical processes in these high energy sources, allowing the discrimination between competing models which may otherwise all be consistent with other types of measurement. This is why most of the projects for the next generation of space missions covering the few tens of keV to the MeV region require a polarization measurement capability. A key element enabling this capability, in this energy range, is a detector system allowing the identification and characterization of Compton interactions as they are the main process at play. The compact hard X-ray imaging spectrometer module, developed in CEA with the generic name of “Caliste” module, is such a detector. In this paper, we present experimental results for two types of Caliste-256 modules, one based on a CdTe crystal, the other one on a CdZnTe crystal, which have been exposed to linearly polarized beams at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). These results, obtained at 200 and 300 keV, demonstrate the capability of these modules to detect Compton events and to give an accurate determination of the polarization parameters (polarization angle and fraction) of the incoming beam. For example, applying an optimized selection to our data set, equivalent to select 90° Compton scattered interactions in the detector plane, we find a modulation factor Q of 0.78 ± 0.06 in the 200–300 keV range. The polarization angle and fraction are derived with accuracies of approximately 1° and 5 % respectively for both CdZnTe and CdTe crystals. The modulation factor remains larger than 0.4 when essentially no selection is made at all on the data. We also present in this paper a simple analytical model of the interactions for the detector geometry. We show that the experimental data compare very well with the simulation, and that simple geometrical effects explain some of the observed deviations between the data and the simulation. All of these results, both experimental and from simulations, prove that the Caliste-256 modules have performances allowing them to be excellent candidates as detectors with polarimetric capabilities, in particular for future space missions. More... »

PAGES

233-258

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s10686-015-9442-5

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10686-015-9442-5

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043308876


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16 schema:description Since the initial exploration of the X- and soft γ-ray sky in the 60’s, high-energy celestial sources have been mainly characterized through imaging, spectroscopy and timing analysis. Despite tremendous progress in the field, the radiation mechanisms at work in sources such as neutrons stars, black holes, and Active Galactic Nuclei are still unclear. The polarization state of the radiation is an observational parameter which brings key additional information about the physical processes in these high energy sources, allowing the discrimination between competing models which may otherwise all be consistent with other types of measurement. This is why most of the projects for the next generation of space missions covering the few tens of keV to the MeV region require a polarization measurement capability. A key element enabling this capability, in this energy range, is a detector system allowing the identification and characterization of Compton interactions as they are the main process at play. The compact hard X-ray imaging spectrometer module, developed in CEA with the generic name of “Caliste” module, is such a detector. In this paper, we present experimental results for two types of Caliste-256 modules, one based on a CdTe crystal, the other one on a CdZnTe crystal, which have been exposed to linearly polarized beams at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). These results, obtained at 200 and 300 keV, demonstrate the capability of these modules to detect Compton events and to give an accurate determination of the polarization parameters (polarization angle and fraction) of the incoming beam. For example, applying an optimized selection to our data set, equivalent to select 90° Compton scattered interactions in the detector plane, we find a modulation factor Q of 0.78 ± 0.06 in the 200–300 keV range. The polarization angle and fraction are derived with accuracies of approximately 1° and 5 % respectively for both CdZnTe and CdTe crystals. The modulation factor remains larger than 0.4 when essentially no selection is made at all on the data. We also present in this paper a simple analytical model of the interactions for the detector geometry. We show that the experimental data compare very well with the simulation, and that simple geometrical effects explain some of the observed deviations between the data and the simulation. All of these results, both experimental and from simulations, prove that the Caliste-256 modules have performances allowing them to be excellent candidates as detectors with polarimetric capabilities, in particular for future space missions.
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24 Caliste
25 Caliste-256 modules
26 CdTe
27 CdTe crystals
28 CdZnTe
29 CdZnTe crystals
30 Compton
31 Compton events
32 Compton interactions
33 European Synchrotron Radiation Facility
34 MeV region
35 Radiation Facility
36 Synchrotron Radiation Facility
37 accuracy
38 accurate determination
39 active galactic nuclei
40 additional information
41 analysis
42 analytical model
43 angle
44 beam
45 black holes
46 candidates
47 capability
48 celestial sources
49 characterization
50 crystals
51 data
52 data sets
53 detector
54 detector geometry
55 detector plane
56 detector system
57 determination
58 deviation
59 discrimination
60 effect
61 elements
62 energy range
63 energy sources
64 events
65 example
66 excellent candidate
67 experimental data
68 experimental results
69 exploration
70 facilities
71 factor Q
72 factors
73 field
74 fraction
75 future space missions
76 galactic nuclei
77 generation
78 generic name
79 geometrical effects
80 geometry
81 high energy sources
82 high performance CdTe
83 high-energy celestial sources
84 holes
85 identification
86 imaging
87 incoming beam
88 information
89 initial exploration
90 interaction
91 keV
92 keV range
93 key additional information
94 key elements
95 main processes
96 measurement capability
97 measurements
98 mechanism
99 mission
100 model
101 modulation factor
102 modulation factor Q
103 module
104 name
105 neutron stars
106 next generation
107 nucleus
108 observational parameters
109 observed deviations
110 one
111 paper
112 parameters
113 performance
114 performance CdTe
115 physical processes
116 plane
117 play
118 polarimetric capabilities
119 polarimetry
120 polarization angle
121 polarization measurement capability
122 polarization parameters
123 polarization state
124 process
125 progress
126 project
127 radiation
128 radiation mechanism
129 range
130 ray polarimetry
131 ray sky
132 rays
133 region
134 results
135 selection
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137 simple analytical model
138 simple geometrical effects
139 simulations
140 sky
141 source
142 space missions
143 spectrometer
144 spectrometer module
145 spectroscopy
146 stars
147 state
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149 tens
150 tens of keV
151 timing analysis
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153 types
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156 schema:name Hard X-ray polarimetry with Caliste, a high performance CdTe based imaging spectrometer
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