Spatial and temporal distribution of arsenic contamination in groundwater of Nawalparasi-West, Nepal: an investigation with suggested countermeasures for South Asian ... View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

2022-07-13

AUTHORS

Tunisha Gyawali, Susmita Pant, Keizo Nakamura, Takeshi Komai, Shukra Raj Paudel

ABSTRACT

Nawalparasi-West/Parasi is one of the severely affected districts in the Terai lowlands of Nepal by arsenic (As) contamination in groundwater, exceeding standards of 10 ppb (WHO) and 50 ppb (Nepal Drinking Water Standard). This study presents the spatial and temporal distribution of As across 6 km × 10 km region in Parasi via meteorological, hydrogeological, physio-chemical, and sedimentological investigations in 31 communities for about 5 years. In this study, water balance analysis was carried out for understanding the groundwater dynamics in the study area and its contribution to As elution. Gentle flow gradient and little to no infiltration was observed in the central region with relatively impervious silty clayey flood plain, where higher As concentrations were obtained compared to the northern Siwalik foothills and southern parts with coarser sediments. Similarly, higher As concentration (1048 ppb) was recorded in the drier pre-monsoon season than the wet season (529 ppb). The aquifer at 12 to 23 m depth feeding 73% wells in the study area exhibited higher As concentration in reduced environment as opposed to the oxidizing state at 5- to 6-m and 30- to 50-m deep aquifers. Other constituents such as Fe, B, and Cr and their relation with As were analyzed. The results of GERAS model analysis done for health risk assessment are also presented which show that under long-term exposure, the residents in Parasi were undertaking intolerable cancer risk of 1.1 to 6.4 × 10−3. This study further incorporates socio-economic sentiments vital to analyze, and propose sustainable and cheap countermeasures for immediate implementation to reduce As exposure and health risk in Nepal, which is also highly applicable for other affected regions in South Asian Region. More... »

PAGES

582

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s10661-022-10276-5

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-022-10276-5

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1149442440

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/35831479


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