Inherent variability in lead and copper collected during standardized sampling View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2016-03

AUTHORS

Sheldon Masters, Jeffrey Parks, Amrou Atassi, Marc A. Edwards

ABSTRACT

Variability in the concentration of lead and copper sampled at consumers' taps poses challenges to assessing consumer health threats and the effectiveness of corrosion control. To examine the minimum variability that is practically achievable, standardized rigs with three lead and copper containing plumbing materials (leaded brass, copper tube with lead solder, and a lead copper connection) were deployed at five utilities and sampled with regimented protocols. Variability represented by relative standard deviation (RSD) in lead release was high in all cases. The brass had the lowest variability in lead release (RSD = 31 %) followed by copper-solder (RSD = 49%) and lead-copper (RSD = 80%). This high inherent variability is due to semi-random detachment of particulate lead to water, and represents a modern reality of water lead problems that should be explicitly acknowledged and considered in all aspects of exposure, public education, and monitoring. More... »

PAGES

177

References to SciGraph publications

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s10661-016-5182-x

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-016-5182-x

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011448976

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26896965


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Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s10661-016-5182-x'

N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s10661-016-5182-x'

Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s10661-016-5182-x'

RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s10661-016-5182-x'


 

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