Traffic-generated noise pollution: exposure of road users and populations in Metropolitan Kuwait View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

2011-12

AUTHORS

N. Z. Al-Mutairi, M. A. Al-Attar, F. S. Al-Rukaibi

ABSTRACT

This study was carried out in metropolitan Kuwait with a sound level meter to assess peak hour and off-peak hour noise level. In local/collector streets, noise ranged between 56.0 to 79.2 dBA and 55.3 to 76.4 dBA; in arterial streets, 62.3 to 89.2 dBA and 59.6 to 78.9 dBA; and in freeways, 66.7 to 94.8 dBA and 64.9 to 89.1 dBA during peak and off-peak hour respectively. Values were higher than their prescribed standards which may pose a significant impact on quality of life. Findings of this research have shown that the level of traffic-generated noise pollution in Kuwait urban area is high enough to adversely affect the human health and well-being of its residents. Over 1,400 subjects responded to a randomly administered survey that assessed the physical health, personal well-being, and mental health. People residing in neighborhoods exposed to higher noise levels have significantly higher stress and noise annoyance levels and also adversely affected their sense of well-being. In the responder analysis, those people living in quiet neighborhoods had significantly higher mean scores in general health (35 points higher, p < 0.05), sense of vitality (30 points higher, p < 0.05), and mental health (20 points higher, p < 0.05) when compared to the other group. In addition, the component scores of stress and noise sensitivity for the participants living in quiet neighborhoods had significantly lower values (30 points lower and 59 points lower, respectively) than that of the participants living in noisy neighborhood. With the rapid expansion of the infrastructures in metropolitan Kuwait, it is virtually definite that traffic noise will shortly assume a dangerous dimension, and will be a ground of escalating fear for both the public and liable policy-makers. The quality of life in metropolitan Kuwait will certainly be negatively affected. More... »

PAGES

65-75

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s10661-011-1906-0

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-011-1906-0

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028201946

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21340547


Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

[
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "about": [
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/1117", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Public Health and Health Services", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/11", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Medical and Health Sciences", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Adult", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Environmental Exposure", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Female", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Humans", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Kuwait", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Male", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Noise, Transportation", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Urban Health", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }
    ], 
    "author": [
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Kuwait University", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.411196.a", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Civil Engineering, Kuwait University, P.O. Box 5969, 13060, Safat, Kuwait"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Al-Mutairi", 
        "givenName": "N. Z.", 
        "id": "sg:person.013014062567.10", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.013014062567.10"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Kuwait University", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.411196.a", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Civil Engineering, Kuwait University, P.O. Box 5969, 13060, Safat, Kuwait"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Al-Attar", 
        "givenName": "M. A.", 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Kuwait University", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.411196.a", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Civil Engineering, Kuwait University, P.O. Box 5969, 13060, Safat, Kuwait"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Al-Rukaibi", 
        "givenName": "F. S.", 
        "id": "sg:person.015151514717.33", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.015151514717.33"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }
    ], 
    "citation": [
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9280.00014", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013753934"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9280.00014", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013753934"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/00005650-199303000-00006", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028052381"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/00005650-199303000-00006", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028052381"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/00005650-199206000-00002", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030545431"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/00005650-199206000-00002", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030545431"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1515/reveh.2000.15.1-2.43", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048884684"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1017/s0264180100001119", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1054885916"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1017/s0264180100001119", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1054885916"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)0733-947x(1987)113:3(229)", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1057602587"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)0733-947x(1993)119:5(751)", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1057603010"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.3844/ajessp.2009.613.617", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1071458339"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }
    ], 
    "datePublished": "2011-12", 
    "datePublishedReg": "2011-12-01", 
    "description": "This study was carried out in metropolitan Kuwait with a sound level meter to assess peak hour and off-peak hour noise level. In local/collector streets, noise ranged between 56.0 to 79.2 dBA and 55.3 to 76.4 dBA; in arterial streets, 62.3 to 89.2 dBA and 59.6 to 78.9 dBA; and in freeways, 66.7 to 94.8 dBA and 64.9 to 89.1 dBA during peak and off-peak hour respectively. Values were higher than their prescribed standards which may pose a significant impact on quality of life. Findings of this research have shown that the level of traffic-generated noise pollution in Kuwait urban area is high enough to adversely affect the human health and well-being of its residents. Over 1,400 subjects responded to a randomly administered survey that assessed the physical health, personal well-being, and mental health. People residing in neighborhoods exposed to higher noise levels have significantly higher stress and noise annoyance levels and also adversely affected their sense of well-being. In the responder analysis, those people living in quiet neighborhoods had significantly higher mean scores in general health (35 points higher, p < 0.05), sense of vitality (30 points higher, p < 0.05), and mental health (20 points higher, p < 0.05) when compared to the other group. In addition, the component scores of stress and noise sensitivity for the participants living in quiet neighborhoods had significantly lower values (30 points lower and 59 points lower, respectively) than that of the participants living in noisy neighborhood. With the rapid expansion of the infrastructures in metropolitan Kuwait, it is virtually definite that traffic noise will shortly assume a dangerous dimension, and will be a ground of escalating fear for both the public and liable policy-makers. The quality of life in metropolitan Kuwait will certainly be negatively affected.", 
    "genre": "research_article", 
    "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s10661-011-1906-0", 
    "inLanguage": [
      "en"
    ], 
    "isAccessibleForFree": false, 
    "isPartOf": [
      {
        "id": "sg:journal.1095684", 
        "issn": [
          "0167-6369", 
          "1573-2959"
        ], 
        "name": "Environmental Monitoring and Assessment", 
        "type": "Periodical"
      }, 
      {
        "issueNumber": "1-4", 
        "type": "PublicationIssue"
      }, 
      {
        "type": "PublicationVolume", 
        "volumeNumber": "183"
      }
    ], 
    "name": "Traffic-generated noise pollution: exposure of road users and populations in Metropolitan Kuwait", 
    "pagination": "65-75", 
    "productId": [
      {
        "name": "readcube_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "865942f40eb3ffa4483af9f4bda92e51eb11804631fc73249bf31010e797d4bc"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "pubmed_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "21340547"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "nlm_unique_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "8508350"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "doi", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "10.1007/s10661-011-1906-0"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "dimensions_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "pub.1028201946"
        ]
      }
    ], 
    "sameAs": [
      "https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-011-1906-0", 
      "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028201946"
    ], 
    "sdDataset": "articles", 
    "sdDatePublished": "2019-04-10T16:42", 
    "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
    "sdPublisher": {
      "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
      "type": "Organization"
    }, 
    "sdSource": "s3://com-uberresearch-data-dimensions-target-20181106-alternative/cleanup/v134/2549eaecd7973599484d7c17b260dba0a4ecb94b/merge/v9/a6c9fde33151104705d4d7ff012ea9563521a3ce/jats-lookup/v90/0000000001_0000000264/records_8669_00000513.jsonl", 
    "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
    "url": "http://link.springer.com/10.1007%2Fs10661-011-1906-0"
  }
]
 

Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s10661-011-1906-0'

N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s10661-011-1906-0'

Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s10661-011-1906-0'

RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s10661-011-1906-0'


 

This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

138 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      45 URIs      29 LITERALS      17 BLANK NODES

Subject Predicate Object
1 sg:pub.10.1007/s10661-011-1906-0 schema:about N0c3492f851a341929f62017e600e603f
2 N2dc43f08c62b4dd6957a746b539982e4
3 N2f7ef27e3d144c3fbe7b3da5cde21938
4 N32066171a9bf4e018a057168fdfc437e
5 N4c0e69eb8f5d4afe90e10fd8ef621494
6 N5a779e1d975e46f486e528646ef1667b
7 Ne9158ec715eb46ab8a4fd3e6b9440e2f
8 Nee71b0a8c6b4476babc5087f7c17cc10
9 anzsrc-for:11
10 anzsrc-for:1117
11 schema:author N7c454bda0585431aaddaf10aea864b6c
12 schema:citation https://doi.org/10.1017/s0264180100001119
13 https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)0733-947x(1987)113:3(229)
14 https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)0733-947x(1993)119:5(751)
15 https://doi.org/10.1097/00005650-199206000-00002
16 https://doi.org/10.1097/00005650-199303000-00006
17 https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9280.00014
18 https://doi.org/10.1515/reveh.2000.15.1-2.43
19 https://doi.org/10.3844/ajessp.2009.613.617
20 schema:datePublished 2011-12
21 schema:datePublishedReg 2011-12-01
22 schema:description This study was carried out in metropolitan Kuwait with a sound level meter to assess peak hour and off-peak hour noise level. In local/collector streets, noise ranged between 56.0 to 79.2 dBA and 55.3 to 76.4 dBA; in arterial streets, 62.3 to 89.2 dBA and 59.6 to 78.9 dBA; and in freeways, 66.7 to 94.8 dBA and 64.9 to 89.1 dBA during peak and off-peak hour respectively. Values were higher than their prescribed standards which may pose a significant impact on quality of life. Findings of this research have shown that the level of traffic-generated noise pollution in Kuwait urban area is high enough to adversely affect the human health and well-being of its residents. Over 1,400 subjects responded to a randomly administered survey that assessed the physical health, personal well-being, and mental health. People residing in neighborhoods exposed to higher noise levels have significantly higher stress and noise annoyance levels and also adversely affected their sense of well-being. In the responder analysis, those people living in quiet neighborhoods had significantly higher mean scores in general health (35 points higher, p < 0.05), sense of vitality (30 points higher, p < 0.05), and mental health (20 points higher, p < 0.05) when compared to the other group. In addition, the component scores of stress and noise sensitivity for the participants living in quiet neighborhoods had significantly lower values (30 points lower and 59 points lower, respectively) than that of the participants living in noisy neighborhood. With the rapid expansion of the infrastructures in metropolitan Kuwait, it is virtually definite that traffic noise will shortly assume a dangerous dimension, and will be a ground of escalating fear for both the public and liable policy-makers. The quality of life in metropolitan Kuwait will certainly be negatively affected.
23 schema:genre research_article
24 schema:inLanguage en
25 schema:isAccessibleForFree false
26 schema:isPartOf N04d6e14945e642a0b6dfe35071001fb8
27 Ncd692ea32def45f596c0dcb9022c60f8
28 sg:journal.1095684
29 schema:name Traffic-generated noise pollution: exposure of road users and populations in Metropolitan Kuwait
30 schema:pagination 65-75
31 schema:productId N1cf71e1917c743d6afdda1161fe09951
32 N2a4c74a2b88149cc9b71292e13b85e5e
33 N6670884a894c44baabf1ddeb46817109
34 Nbdb7a31380114637bf9345f12712cb7e
35 Ne63df0bfc03a4ababc9b21d2327fb0a0
36 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028201946
37 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-011-1906-0
38 schema:sdDatePublished 2019-04-10T16:42
39 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
40 schema:sdPublisher N4c4cdf9e3c524a29ac35c51dbb19baa3
41 schema:url http://link.springer.com/10.1007%2Fs10661-011-1906-0
42 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
43 sgo:sdDataset articles
44 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
45 N04d6e14945e642a0b6dfe35071001fb8 schema:issueNumber 1-4
46 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
47 N0c3492f851a341929f62017e600e603f schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
48 schema:name Male
49 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
50 N1cf71e1917c743d6afdda1161fe09951 schema:name pubmed_id
51 schema:value 21340547
52 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
53 N2a4c74a2b88149cc9b71292e13b85e5e schema:name doi
54 schema:value 10.1007/s10661-011-1906-0
55 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
56 N2dc43f08c62b4dd6957a746b539982e4 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
57 schema:name Urban Health
58 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
59 N2f7ef27e3d144c3fbe7b3da5cde21938 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
60 schema:name Adult
61 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
62 N32066171a9bf4e018a057168fdfc437e schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
63 schema:name Humans
64 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
65 N3bf02f44ca72491c8165705880523816 rdf:first sg:person.015151514717.33
66 rdf:rest rdf:nil
67 N4c0e69eb8f5d4afe90e10fd8ef621494 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
68 schema:name Kuwait
69 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
70 N4c4cdf9e3c524a29ac35c51dbb19baa3 schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
71 rdf:type schema:Organization
72 N5a779e1d975e46f486e528646ef1667b schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
73 schema:name Noise, Transportation
74 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
75 N6670884a894c44baabf1ddeb46817109 schema:name nlm_unique_id
76 schema:value 8508350
77 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
78 N6ef51af4d12a4f808fc16748074053e2 rdf:first N7e4ccc25699c48e787e67f8e59bc9edc
79 rdf:rest N3bf02f44ca72491c8165705880523816
80 N7c454bda0585431aaddaf10aea864b6c rdf:first sg:person.013014062567.10
81 rdf:rest N6ef51af4d12a4f808fc16748074053e2
82 N7e4ccc25699c48e787e67f8e59bc9edc schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.411196.a
83 schema:familyName Al-Attar
84 schema:givenName M. A.
85 rdf:type schema:Person
86 Nbdb7a31380114637bf9345f12712cb7e schema:name dimensions_id
87 schema:value pub.1028201946
88 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
89 Ncd692ea32def45f596c0dcb9022c60f8 schema:volumeNumber 183
90 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
91 Ne63df0bfc03a4ababc9b21d2327fb0a0 schema:name readcube_id
92 schema:value 865942f40eb3ffa4483af9f4bda92e51eb11804631fc73249bf31010e797d4bc
93 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
94 Ne9158ec715eb46ab8a4fd3e6b9440e2f schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
95 schema:name Female
96 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
97 Nee71b0a8c6b4476babc5087f7c17cc10 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
98 schema:name Environmental Exposure
99 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
100 anzsrc-for:11 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
101 schema:name Medical and Health Sciences
102 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
103 anzsrc-for:1117 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
104 schema:name Public Health and Health Services
105 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
106 sg:journal.1095684 schema:issn 0167-6369
107 1573-2959
108 schema:name Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
109 rdf:type schema:Periodical
110 sg:person.013014062567.10 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.411196.a
111 schema:familyName Al-Mutairi
112 schema:givenName N. Z.
113 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.013014062567.10
114 rdf:type schema:Person
115 sg:person.015151514717.33 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.411196.a
116 schema:familyName Al-Rukaibi
117 schema:givenName F. S.
118 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.015151514717.33
119 rdf:type schema:Person
120 https://doi.org/10.1017/s0264180100001119 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1054885916
121 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
122 https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)0733-947x(1987)113:3(229) schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1057602587
123 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
124 https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)0733-947x(1993)119:5(751) schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1057603010
125 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
126 https://doi.org/10.1097/00005650-199206000-00002 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030545431
127 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
128 https://doi.org/10.1097/00005650-199303000-00006 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028052381
129 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
130 https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9280.00014 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013753934
131 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
132 https://doi.org/10.1515/reveh.2000.15.1-2.43 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048884684
133 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
134 https://doi.org/10.3844/ajessp.2009.613.617 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1071458339
135 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
136 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.411196.a schema:alternateName Kuwait University
137 schema:name Department of Civil Engineering, Kuwait University, P.O. Box 5969, 13060, Safat, Kuwait
138 rdf:type schema:Organization
 




Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


...