Metabolic alterations elicited by Cd and Zn toxicity in Zea mays with the association of Claroideoglomus claroideum View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2021-10-29

AUTHORS

Edappayil Janeeshma, Jos T. Puthur, Jacek Wróbel, Hazem M. Kalaji

ABSTRACT

The concentrations of cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) in arable lands exceed the maximum permissible levels due to the excessive use of phosphorus fertilizers and fungicides by farmers. The increasing issues related to the application of agrochemicals have lead to the demand for the implementation of sustainable agricultural approaches. Association of arbuscular mycorrhizae with crop plants is an appropriate strategy due to the potential of these microorganisms to augment the metals tolerance of plants through the immobilization of Cd and Zn in an eco-friendly manner. In the present study, 45 d old Zea mays (var. CoHM6) plants inoculated with AM fungi (Claroideoglomus claroideum) were exposed to 1.95 g Zn Kg−1 soil and 0.45 g Cd Kg−1 soil. The major objective of this study was to determine the metabolic alterations in the leaves and roots of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants exposed to CdCl2 and ZnSO4. Both non AM and AM plants exhibited alterations in the quantity of primary and secondary metabolites on exposure to Zn and Cd toxicity. Moreover, Zn and Cd-induced accumulation of γ-sitosterol reduced the quantity of neophytadiene (a well-known terpenoid) and aided the production of 3-β-acetoxystigmasta-4,6,22-triene in maize leaves. Mycorrhization and heavy metal toxicity induced significant metabolic changes in the roots by producing 4,22-stigmastadiene-3-one, eicosane, 9,19-cyclolanost-24-en-3-ol, pentacosane, oxalic acid, heptadecyl hexyl ester, l-norvaline, and n-(2-methoxyethoxycarbonyl). In addition, the metal-induced variations in leaf and root lignin composition were characterized with the aid of the FTIR technique. Mycorrhization improved the tolerance of maize plants to Cd and Zn toxicity by stabilizing these metal ions in the soil and/or limiting their uptake into the plants, thus ensuring normal metabolic functions of their roots and shoots. More... »

PAGES

92-113

References to SciGraph publications

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  • 2021-08-25. Bacillus pumilus induced tolerance of Maize (Zea mays L.) against Cadmium (Cd) stress in SCIENTIFIC REPORTS
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  • 2014-02-09. Effect of cadmium stress on inductive enzymatic and nonenzymatic responses of ROS and sugar metabolism in multiple shoot cultures of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera Dunal) in PROTOPLASMA
  • 2018-02-21. Hydrogen sulfide regulates the levels of key metabolites and antioxidant defense system to counteract oxidative stress in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants exposed to high zinc regime in ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH
  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s10646-021-02492-5

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10646-021-02492-5

    DIMENSIONS

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    PUBMED

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