Metabolism and accumulation of the lipophilic deoxynucleoside analogs elacytarabine and CP-4126 View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2012-10

AUTHORS

Auke D. Adema, Kees Smid, Nienke Losekoot, Richard J. Honeywell, Henk M. Verheul, Finn Myhren, Marit L. Sandvold, Godefridus J. Peters

ABSTRACT

Cytarabine (ara-C) and gemcitabine (dFdC) are commonly used anticancer drugs, which depend on the equilibrative (ENT) and concentrative-nucleoside-transporters to enter the cell. To bypass transport-related drug resistance, lipophilic derivatives elacytarabine (CP-4055), ara-C-5'elaidic-acid-ester, and CP-4126, (CO 1.01) gemcitabine-5'elaidic-acid-ester, were investigated for the entry into the cell, distribution, metabolism and retention. The leukemic CEM-cell-line and its deoxycytidine-kinase deficient variant (CEM/dCK-) were exposed for 30 and 60 min to the radiolabeled drugs; followed by culture in drug-free medium in order to determine drug retention in the cell. The cellular fractions were analyzed with thin-layer-chromatography and HPLC. Elacytarabine and CP-4126 were converted to the parent compounds both inside and outside the cell (35-45%). The ENT-inhibitor dipyridamole did not affect their uptake or retention. Inside the cell Elacytarabine and CP-4126 predominantly localized in the membrane and cytosolic fraction, leading to a long retention after removal of the medium. In contrast, in cells exposed to the parent drugs ara-C and dFdC, intracellular drug concentration increased during exposure but decreased to undetectable levels after drug removal. In the dCK- cell line, no metabolism was observed. The concentrations of ara-CTP and dFdCTP reached a peak at the end of the incubation with the drugs, and decreased after drug removal; peak levels of dFdCTP were 35 times higher than ara-CTP and was retained better. In contrast, after exposure to elacytarabine or CP-4126, ara-CTP and dFdCTP levels continued to increase not only during exposure but also during 120 min after removal of the elacytarabine and CP-4126. Levels of ara-CTP and dFdCTP were higher than after exposure to the parent drugs. In conclusion, the lipophilic derivatives elacytarabine and CP-4126 showed a nucleoside-transporter independent uptake, with long retention of the active nucleotides. These lipophilic nucleoside analogues are new chemical entities suitable for novel clinical applications. More... »

PAGES

1908-1916

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s10637-011-9756-8

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10637-011-9756-8

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032350752

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22002019


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47 schema:description Cytarabine (ara-C) and gemcitabine (dFdC) are commonly used anticancer drugs, which depend on the equilibrative (ENT) and concentrative-nucleoside-transporters to enter the cell. To bypass transport-related drug resistance, lipophilic derivatives elacytarabine (CP-4055), ara-C-5'elaidic-acid-ester, and CP-4126, (CO 1.01) gemcitabine-5'elaidic-acid-ester, were investigated for the entry into the cell, distribution, metabolism and retention. The leukemic CEM-cell-line and its deoxycytidine-kinase deficient variant (CEM/dCK-) were exposed for 30 and 60 min to the radiolabeled drugs; followed by culture in drug-free medium in order to determine drug retention in the cell. The cellular fractions were analyzed with thin-layer-chromatography and HPLC. Elacytarabine and CP-4126 were converted to the parent compounds both inside and outside the cell (35-45%). The ENT-inhibitor dipyridamole did not affect their uptake or retention. Inside the cell Elacytarabine and CP-4126 predominantly localized in the membrane and cytosolic fraction, leading to a long retention after removal of the medium. In contrast, in cells exposed to the parent drugs ara-C and dFdC, intracellular drug concentration increased during exposure but decreased to undetectable levels after drug removal. In the dCK- cell line, no metabolism was observed. The concentrations of ara-CTP and dFdCTP reached a peak at the end of the incubation with the drugs, and decreased after drug removal; peak levels of dFdCTP were 35 times higher than ara-CTP and was retained better. In contrast, after exposure to elacytarabine or CP-4126, ara-CTP and dFdCTP levels continued to increase not only during exposure but also during 120 min after removal of the elacytarabine and CP-4126. Levels of ara-CTP and dFdCTP were higher than after exposure to the parent drugs. In conclusion, the lipophilic derivatives elacytarabine and CP-4126 showed a nucleoside-transporter independent uptake, with long retention of the active nucleotides. These lipophilic nucleoside analogues are new chemical entities suitable for novel clinical applications.
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