Mechanistic understanding of the toxic effects of arsenic and warfare arsenicals on human health and environment View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2022-04-01

AUTHORS

Suhail Muzaffar, Jasim Khan, Ritesh Srivastava, Marina S. Gorbatyuk, Mohammad Athar

ABSTRACT

Worldwide, more than 200 million people are estimated to be exposed to unsafe levels of arsenic. Chronic exposure to unsafe levels of groundwater arsenic is responsible for multiple human disorders, including dermal, cardiovascular, neurological, pulmonary, renal, and metabolic conditions. Consumption of rice and seafood (where high levels of arsenic are accumulated) is also responsible for human exposure to arsenic. The toxicity of arsenic compounds varies greatly and may depend on their chemical form, solubility, and concentration. Surprisingly, synthetic organoarsenicals are extremely toxic molecules which created interest in their development as chemical warfare agents (CWAs) during World War I (WWI). Among these CWAs, adamsite, Clark I, Clark II, and lewisite are of critical importance, as stockpiles of these agents still exist worldwide. In addition, unused WWII weaponized arsenicals discarded in water bodies or buried in many parts of the world continue to pose a serious threat to the environment and human health. Metabolic inhibition, oxidative stress, genotoxicity, and epigenetic alterations including micro-RNA-dependent regulation are some of the underlying mechanisms of arsenic toxicity. Mechanistic understanding of the toxicity of organoarsenicals is also critical for the development of effective therapeutic interventions. This review provides comprehensive details and a critical assessment of recently published data on various chemical forms of arsenic, their exposure, and implications on human and environmental health.Graphical abstract More... »

PAGES

1-26

References to SciGraph publications

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