Sporicidal efficacy of genipin: a potential theoretical alternative for biomaterial and tissue graft sterilization View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

2013-09

AUTHORS

Michael S. Reich, Ozan Akkus

ABSTRACT

Terminal sterilization of musculoskeletal allografts by gamma radiation minimizes the risk of disease transmission but impairs allograft mechanical properties. Commonly employed crosslinking agents can sterilize tissues without affecting mechanical properties adversely; however, these agents are toxic. Genipin is reported to be a benign crosslinking agent that strengthens mechanical properties of tissues; however, the antimicrobial capacity of genipin is largely unknown. The present study's aims were: (1) to assess the sporicidal potential of genipin, (2) to improve antimicrobial capacity by changing chemical and physical treatment conditions. To establish genipin's sterilization potential Bacillus subtilis var. niger spore strips were treated with 0-10% genipin in PBS or in 1:1 DMSO:PBS up to 72 h at room temperature (RT). Sterilizing doses and concentrations of genipin were used to treat B. pumilus and Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores to assess broader spectrum sporicidal activity of genipin. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed to evaluate gross morphological changes after genipin treatment. Optimal sterilization conditions were determined by evaluating the effects of temperature (RT-50 °C), DMSO:PBS ratio (0:100-100:0), and treatment duration (24-72 h) on B. subtilis. Genipin penetration of full thickness bovine patellar tendon and cortical bone specimens was observed to assess the feasibility of the agent for treating grafts. Initial studies showed that after 72 h of treatment at RT with 0.63-10% genipin/DMSO:PBS B. subtilis spore strips were sterilized; 0.63% genipin/PBS did not sterilize spore strips at 72 h at RT. Genipin doses and concentrations that sterilized B. subtilis spore strips sterilized B. pumilus and G. stearothermophilus spore strips. SEM revealed no gross morphological differences between untreated and treated spores. Treatment optimization resulted in sterilization within 24 h with 100% PBS, and DMSO facilitated sporicidal activity. Genipin penetrated full thickness patellar tendon specimens and 3.72 ± 0.58 mm in cortical bone specimens. Genipin sterilizes B. subtilis, B. pumilus, and G. stearothermophilus spore strips. It penetrates soft and hard tissues at doses previously shown to be non-toxic and to improve mechanical strength in collagen-rich soft tissues. Further studies are indicated to assess genipin's effects on the mechanical properties of genipin-sterilized grafts, the ability of genipin to eradicate infectious species other than spores, and to assess whether sterilant activity persists after penetrating tissues and biomaterials. More... »

PAGES

381-393

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s10561-012-9335-z

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10561-012-9335-z

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043579862

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22875200


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