Parasitoid complex of black scale Saissetia oleae on citrus and olives: parasitoid species composition and seasonal trend View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

2008-06

AUTHORS

Alejandro Tena, Antonia Soto, Ferran Garcia-Marí

ABSTRACT

The parasitoid complex of black scale Saissetia oleae (Olivier) (Hemiptera: Coccidae) was studied on citrus and olives to determine their relative abundance, seasonal trend, geographical distribution, and their incidence on black scale populations. Branches and leaves of ten citrus and four olive groves infested with black scale were periodically collected over the period March 2003–December 2005 in eastern Spain, covering an area of 10,000 km2. Adult parasitoids were also sampled with a portable engine-powered suction device. Black scale females were attacked by Scutellista caerulea (Fonscolombe) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), which was found beneath 35.4 ± 7.5% and 22.4 ± 3.5% female scale’s body in citrus and olive groves, respectively. However, S. caerulea attacked the scales when most of their eggs had already hatched. The parasitic mite Pyemotes herfsi (Oudemans) (Prostigmata: Pyemotidae) fed on all development stages of S. caerulea. The gregarious female’s endoparasitoid Metaphycus lounsburyi (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) was common in citrus and olive trees, but the parasitism rates it reached was low. Second and third instars of black scale were mainly parasitized by the solitary endoparasitoid Metaphycus flavus (Howard), and secondarily by Metaphycus helvolus (Compere) which was much less abundant and limited in distribution. Thus, M. helvolus, introduced 30 years ago, has not displaced M. flavus as in other Mediterranean areas. According to their abundance, distribution and incidence, M. flavus and S. caerulea appeared as the main parasitoids of black scale in eastern Spain, whereas M. helvolus and M. lounsburyi, considered the main parasitoids in other citrus and olive areas of the world, had a limited incidence. Recommendations for improving the level of biological control are discussed. More... »

PAGES

473-487

Journal

TITLE

BioControl

ISSUE

3

VOLUME

53

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s10526-007-9084-2

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10526-007-9084-2

DIMENSIONS

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