Anatomy of the Book Canyon conglomerate: a sequence boundary at the top of the Bear Gulch Limestone in the Big ... View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2019-02-24

AUTHORS

Amy Singer, George D. Stanley, Nancy W. Hinman

ABSTRACT

The Serpukhovian Book Canyon Conglomerate is an unpublished limestone conglomerate contained within the Tyler Formation in central Montana. It overlies and contains clasts of the Bear Gulch Limestone, a plattenkalk deposit yielding amazing paleontological detail. The Book Canyon Conglomerate is up to 2 m thick, markedly lensoid, and laterally discontinuous in its outcrop for a distance of 2 km but likely extends beyond the study area. Well logs and cores indicate its presence in the subsurface between the underlying Bear Gulch Limestone (Serpukhovian) and overlying Tyler Formation (Serpukhovian–Morrowan). This conglomerate provides new information regarding the transition of the marine-dominated Bear Gulch Limestone to the overlying Tyler Formation. The Book Canyon Conglomerate is dominantly clast-supported and includes sedimentary structures including pebble and cobble imbrication, tangential cross-stratification, and an overall upward-fining character. The basal surface of the conglomerate is sharp and irregular where the top of the underlying Bear Gulch Limestone has been erosionally removed. The Book Canyon Conglomerate is therefore interpreted as a fluvial channel deposit formed on a surface of subaerial exposure at the top of the Bear Gulch Limestone. In areas where the conglomerate is thin or absent, the top of the Bear Gulch Limestone is interpreted as a paleosol developed in a semi-arid climate where it is preserved between channel incisions of the Book Canyon Conglomerate. The paleosol contains microcrystalline silica cement and limestone clasts that have weathered to a black color. Freshwater exposure and channelized fluvial erosion early in the post-depositional history of the Bear Gulch Limestone explain variations in the contacts between units. These variations contribute to the debate concerning stratigraphic relationships. Further analysis of unconformities and fauna at the base and top of the unit clarifies the Bear Gulch Limestone’s position in time, and its relationship to the Heath and Tyler Formations. More... »

PAGES

15

References to SciGraph publications

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s10347-019-0557-4

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10347-019-0557-4

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1112360500


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