Isolation and characterization of cellulose-degrading bacteria from the deep subsurface of the Homestake gold mine, Lead, South Dakota, USA View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

2009-02-03

AUTHORS

Gurdeep Rastogi, Geetha L. Muppidi, Raghu N. Gurram, Akash Adhikari, Kenneth M. Bischoff, Stephen R. Hughes, William A. Apel, Sookie S. Bang, David J. Dixon, Rajesh K. Sani

ABSTRACT

The present study investigated the cultivable mesophilic (37°C) and thermophilic (60°C) cellulose-degrading bacterial diversity in a weathered soil-like sample collected from the deep subsurface (1.5 km depth) of the Homestake gold mine in Lead, South Dakota, USA. Chemical characterization of the sample by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy revealed a high amount of toxic heavy metals such as Cu, Cr, Pb, Ni, and Zn. Molecular community structures were determined by phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from enrichment cultures growing in presence of microcrystalline cellulose as the sole source of carbon. All phylotypes retrieved from enrichment cultures were affiliated to Firmicutes. Cellulose-degrading mesophilic and thermophilic pure cultures belonging to the genera Brevibacillus, Paenibacillus, Bacillus, and Geobacillus were isolated from enrichment cultures, and selected cultures were studied for enzyme activities. For a mesophilic isolate (DUSELG12), the optimum pH and temperature for carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase) were 5.5 and 55°C, while for a thermophilic isolate (DUSELR7) they were 5.0 and 75°C, respectively. Furthermore, DUSELG12 retained about 40% CMCase activity after incubation at 60°C for 8 h. Most remarkably, thermophilic isolate, DUSELR7 retained 26% CMCase activity at 60°C up to a period of 300 h. Overall, the present work revealed the presence of different cellulose-degrading bacterial lineages in the unique deep subsurface environment of the mine. The results also have strong implications for biological conversion of cellulosic agricultural and forestry wastes to commodity chemicals including sugars. More... »

PAGES

585

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s10295-009-0528-9

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10295-009-0528-9

DIMENSIONS

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PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19189143


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31 schema:description The present study investigated the cultivable mesophilic (37°C) and thermophilic (60°C) cellulose-degrading bacterial diversity in a weathered soil-like sample collected from the deep subsurface (1.5 km depth) of the Homestake gold mine in Lead, South Dakota, USA. Chemical characterization of the sample by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy revealed a high amount of toxic heavy metals such as Cu, Cr, Pb, Ni, and Zn. Molecular community structures were determined by phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from enrichment cultures growing in presence of microcrystalline cellulose as the sole source of carbon. All phylotypes retrieved from enrichment cultures were affiliated to Firmicutes. Cellulose-degrading mesophilic and thermophilic pure cultures belonging to the genera Brevibacillus, Paenibacillus, Bacillus, and Geobacillus were isolated from enrichment cultures, and selected cultures were studied for enzyme activities. For a mesophilic isolate (DUSELG12), the optimum pH and temperature for carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase) were 5.5 and 55°C, while for a thermophilic isolate (DUSELR7) they were 5.0 and 75°C, respectively. Furthermore, DUSELG12 retained about 40% CMCase activity after incubation at 60°C for 8 h. Most remarkably, thermophilic isolate, DUSELR7 retained 26% CMCase activity at 60°C up to a period of 300 h. Overall, the present work revealed the presence of different cellulose-degrading bacterial lineages in the unique deep subsurface environment of the mine. The results also have strong implications for biological conversion of cellulosic agricultural and forestry wastes to commodity chemicals including sugars.
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39 CMCase activity
40 Cellulose-degrading mesophilic
41 Cr
42 Cu
43 DUSELG12
44 DUSELR7
45 Dakota
46 Firmicutes
47 Geobacillus
48 Homestake gold mine
49 Molecular community structures
50 Ni
51 Paenibacillus
52 Pb
53 South Dakota
54 USA
55 Zn
56 activity
57 amount
58 analysis
59 bacilli
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61 bacterial diversity
62 bacterial lineages
63 biological conversion
64 carbon
65 carboxymethyl cellulase
66 cellulase
67 cellulose
68 cellulose-degrading bacteria
69 cellulose-degrading bacterial diversity
70 cellulose-degrading bacterial lineages
71 characterization
72 chemical characterization
73 chemicals
74 commodity chemicals
75 community structure
76 conversion
77 cultivable mesophilic
78 culture
79 deep subsurface
80 deep subsurface environments
81 different cellulose-degrading bacterial lineages
82 diversity
83 enrichment cultures
84 environment
85 enzyme activity
86 fluorescence spectroscopy
87 forestry wastes
88 gene sequences
89 genus Brevibacillus
90 gold mine
91 heavy metals
92 high amounts
93 implications
94 incubation
95 isolates
96 isolation
97 lead
98 lineages
99 mesophilic
100 mesophilic isolates
101 metals
102 microcrystalline cellulose
103 mine
104 optimum pH
105 pH
106 period
107 phylogenetic analysis
108 phylotypes
109 presence
110 present study
111 present work
112 pure culture
113 rRNA gene sequences
114 ray fluorescence spectroscopy
115 results
116 samples
117 sequence
118 soil-like sample
119 sole source
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121 spectroscopy
122 strong implications
123 structure
124 study
125 subsurface
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127 sugars
128 temperature
129 thermophilic (60°C) cellulose-degrading bacterial diversity
130 thermophilic isolates
131 thermophilic pure cultures
132 toxic heavy metals
133 unique deep subsurface environment
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