Delineation of capture zones for municipal wells in fractured dolomite, Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin, USA View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

2001-10

AUTHORS

Todd W. Rayne, Kenneth R. Bradbury, Maureen A. Muldoon

ABSTRACT

A wellhead protection study for the city of Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin, USA, demonstrates the necessity of combining detailed hydrostratigraphic analysis with groundwater modeling to delineate zones of contribution for municipal wells in a fractured dolomite aquifer. A numerical model (MODFLOW) was combined with a particle tracking code (MODPATH) to simulate the regional groundwater system and to delineate capture zones for municipal wells. The hydrostratigraphic model included vertical and horizontal fractures and high-permeability zones. Correlating stratigraphic interpretations with field data such as geophysical logs, packer tests, and fracture mapping resulted in the construction of a numerical model with five high-permeability zones related to bedding planes or facies changes. These zones serve as major conduits for horizontal groundwater flow. Dipping fracture zones were simulated as thin high-permeability layers. The locations of exposed bedrock and surficial karst features were used to identify areas of enhanced recharge. Model results show the vulnerability of the municipal wells to pollution. Capture zones for the wells extend several kilometers north and south from the city. Travel times from recharge areas to all wells were generally less than one year. The high seasonal variability of recharge in the study area made the use of a transient model necessary. More... »

PAGES

432-450

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s100400100154

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s100400100154

DIMENSIONS

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