Groundwater recharge pathways to a weathered-rock aquifer system in a dryland catchment in Burkina Faso View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2022-06-23

AUTHORS

Radegonde Rusagara, Mahamadou Koïta, Valérie Plagnes, Anne Jost

ABSTRACT

Groundwater recharge rate for weathered rock aquifers in the Sahel of West Africa is sparse due to insufficient knowledge of the recharge pathways. This study was initiated in the Tougou ephemeral river catchment (37 km2) to improve understanding of recharge pathways to a weathered rock aquifer in the dryland of Burkina Faso. It is based on field investigations conducted in 2016–2020 on a piezometric transect and large-diameter wells, perpendicular and longitudinal to the river, respectively. Geophysical measurements, lithologs analysis, permeability tests, groundwater and river level monitoring, and rainfall measurements were undertaken. The results showed a laterally continuous saprolite aquifer (10–22 m thick) overlain by residual soils beneath the river and discontinuous laterite on the banks. Below the river, the saprolite overlays the weathered schist aquifer with an upward or downward hydraulic gradient regardless of the seasons. The saprolite is replenished by focused recharge from the river and diffuse recharge from the rainfall on the banks, according to information from the groundwater hydrographs, groundwater tracing results, and cross-correlation between the groundwater levels and the two potential recharge sources (rainfall and river water). The low hydraulic conductivity, electrical resistivity tomography profiles and lithologs indicate restriction of diffuse and focused recharge through soil matrix infiltration, suggesting there are preferential recharge pathways. For the 2018–2020 period, the water-table fluctuation method provides recharge estimates of 14–51 mm/year on the northern bank, 10–36 mm/year on the southern bank and 148–194 mm/year in the riverbed. More... »

PAGES

1489-1512

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  • 2012-11-11. Evidence of the dependence of groundwater resources on extreme rainfall in East Africa in NATURE CLIMATE CHANGE
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    64 hydraulic gradient
    65 hydrograph
    66 infiltration
    67 information
    68 insufficient knowledge
    69 investigation
    70 knowledge
    71 large-diameter wells
    72 laterite
    73 level monitoring
    74 levels
    75 low hydraulic conductivity
    76 matrix infiltration
    77 measurements
    78 method
    79 monitoring
    80 northern bank
    81 overlain
    82 pathway
    83 period
    84 permeability tests
    85 perpendicular
    86 potential recharge sources
    87 profile
    88 rainfall
    89 rainfall measurements
    90 rate
    91 recharge
    92 recharge estimates
    93 recharge pathways
    94 recharge sources
    95 residual soil
    96 restriction
    97 results
    98 riverbed
    99 rock aquifers
    100 saprolite
    101 schist aquifer
    102 season
    103 soil
    104 source
    105 southern bank
    106 study
    107 system
    108 test
    109 tracing results
    110 transects
    111 understanding
    112 water table fluctuation method
    113 wells
    114 years
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